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      Optical Biosensors: A Revolution Towards Quantum Nanoscale Electronics Device Fabrication

      1 , * , 2

      Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology

      Hindawi Publishing Corporation

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          Abstract

          The dimension of biomolecules is of few nanometers, so the biomolecular devices ought to be of that range so a better understanding about the performance of the electronic biomolecular devices can be obtained at nanoscale. Development of optical biomolecular device is a new move towards revolution of nano-bioelectronics. Optical biosensor is one of such nano-biomolecular devices that has a potential to pave a new dimension of research and device fabrication in the field of optical and biomedical fields. This paper is a very small report about optical biosensor and its development and importance in various fields.

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          Most cited references 66

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          Real-time DNA sequencing from single polymerase molecules.

          We present single-molecule, real-time sequencing data obtained from a DNA polymerase performing uninterrupted template-directed synthesis using four distinguishable fluorescently labeled deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs). We detected the temporal order of their enzymatic incorporation into a growing DNA strand with zero-mode waveguide nanostructure arrays, which provide optical observation volume confinement and enable parallel, simultaneous detection of thousands of single-molecule sequencing reactions. Conjugation of fluorophores to the terminal phosphate moiety of the dNTPs allows continuous observation of DNA synthesis over thousands of bases without steric hindrance. The data report directly on polymerase dynamics, revealing distinct polymerization states and pause sites corresponding to DNA secondary structure. Sequence data were aligned with the known reference sequence to assay biophysical parameters of polymerization for each template position. Consensus sequences were generated from the single-molecule reads at 15-fold coverage, showing a median accuracy of 99.3%, with no systematic error beyond fluorophore-dependent error rates.
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            Nanotube molecular wires as chemical sensors

            Chemical sensors based on individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are demonstrated. Upon exposure to gaseous molecules such as NO(2) or NH(3), the electrical resistance of a semiconducting SWNT is found to dramatically increase or decrease. This serves as the basis for nanotube molecular sensors. The nanotube sensors exhibit a fast response and a substantially higher sensitivity than that of existing solid-state sensors at room temperature. Sensor reversibility is achieved by slow recovery under ambient conditions or by heating to high temperatures. The interactions between molecular species and SWNTs and the mechanisms of molecular sensing with nanotube molecular wires are investigated.
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              DNA biosensors and microarrays.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Biomed Biotechnol
                JBB
                Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                1110-7243
                1110-7251
                2011
                29 October 2011
                : 2011
                Affiliations
                1Department of Engineering Physics, Tripura Institute of Technology, Narsingarh, Tripura-799009, India
                2Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, Tripura Institute of Technology, Narsingarh, Tripura-799009, India
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Paul W. Doetsch

                Article
                10.1155/2011/348218
                3205924
                22131802
                Copyright © 2011 D. Dey and T. Goswami.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Molecular medicine

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