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      The Senses of Agency and Ownership: A Review


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          Usually, we do not question that we possess a body and act upon the world. This pre-reflective awareness of being a bodily and agentive self can, however, be disrupted by different clinical conditions. Whereas sense of ownership (SoO) describes the feeling of mineness toward one’s own body parts, feelings or thoughts, sense of agency (SoA) refers to the experience of initiating and controlling an action. Although SoA and SoO naturally coincide, both experiences can also be made in isolation. By using many different experimental paradigms, both experiences have been extensively studied over the last years. This review introduces both concepts, with a special focus also onto their interplay. First, current experimental paradigms, results and neurocognitive theories about both concepts will be presented and then their clinical and therapeutic relevance is discussed.

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          Interoceptive inference, emotion, and the embodied self.

          The concept of the brain as a prediction machine has enjoyed a resurgence in the context of the Bayesian brain and predictive coding approaches within cognitive science. To date, this perspective has been applied primarily to exteroceptive perception (e.g., vision, audition), and action. Here, I describe a predictive, inferential perspective on interoception: 'interoceptive inference' conceives of subjective feeling states (emotions) as arising from actively-inferred generative (predictive) models of the causes of interoceptive afferents. The model generalizes 'appraisal' theories that view emotions as emerging from cognitive evaluations of physiological changes, and it sheds new light on the neurocognitive mechanisms that underlie the experience of body ownership and conscious selfhood in health and in neuropsychiatric illness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            From presence to consciousness through virtual reality.

            Immersive virtual environments can break the deep, everyday connection between where our senses tell us we are and where we are actually located and whom we are with. The concept of 'presence' refers to the phenomenon of behaving and feeling as if we are in the virtual world created by computer displays. In this article, we argue that presence is worthy of study by neuroscientists, and that it might aid the study of perception and consciousness.
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              Central cancellation of self-produced tickle sensation.

              A self-produced tactile stimulus is perceived as less ticklish than the same stimulus generated externally. We used fMRI to examine neural responses when subjects experienced a tactile stimulus that was either self-produced or externally produced. More activity was found in somatosensory cortex when the stimulus was externally produced. In the cerebellum, less activity was associated with a movement that generated a tactile stimulus than with a movement that did not. This difference suggests that the cerebellum is involved in predicting the specific sensory consequences of movements, providing the signal that is used to cancel the sensory response to self-generated stimulation.

                Author and article information

                Front Psychol
                Front Psychol
                Front. Psychol.
                Frontiers in Psychology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                16 April 2018
                : 9
                [1] 1Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Bonn , Bonn, Germany
                [2] 2Medical Campus University of Oldenburg, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Psychiatry and Psychotherapy , Oldenburg, Germany
                [3] 3Neuropsychology Lab, Department of Psychology, University of Oldenburg , Oldenburg, Germany
                Author notes

                Edited by: Kourken Michaelian, University of Otago, New Zealand

                Reviewed by: Glenn Carruthers, Charles Sturt University, Australia; Andreas Kalckert, University of Reading Malaysia, Malaysia

                *Correspondence: Niclas Braun, niclas.braun@ 123456uni-oldenburg.de

                This article was submitted to Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology

                Copyright © 2018 Braun, Debener, Spychala, Bongartz, Sörös, Müller and Philipsen.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 174, Pages: 17, Words: 0

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                virtual reality therapy,asomatognosia,alien hand syndrome,sense of ownership,sense of agency,rubber hand illusion,phenomenal transparency,limb-ownership


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