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      Biogeographical patterns and determinants of invasion by forest pathogens in Europe.

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          A large database of invasive forest pathogens (IFPs) was developed to investigate the patterns and determinants of invasion in Europe. Detailed taxonomic and biological information on the invasive species was combined with country-specific data on land use, climate, and the time since invasion to identify the determinants of invasiveness, and to differentiate the class of environments which share territorial and climate features associated with a susceptibility to invasion. IFPs increased exponentially in the last four decades. Until 1919, IFPs already present moved across Europe. Then, new IFPs were introduced mainly from North America, and recently from Asia. Hybrid pathogens also appeared. Countries with a wider range of environments, higher human impact or international trade hosted more IFPs. Rainfall influenced the diffusion rates. Environmental conditions of the new and original ranges and systematic and ecological attributes affected invasiveness. Further spread of established IFPs is expected in countries that have experienced commercial isolation in the recent past. Densely populated countries with high environmental diversity may be the weakest links in attempts to prevent new arrivals. Tight coordination of actions against new arrivals is needed. Eradication seems impossible, and prevention seems the only reliable measure, although this will be difficult in the face of global mobility.

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          Author and article information

          New Phytol
          The New phytologist
          Jan 2013
          : 197
          : 1
          [1 ] Istituto per la Protezione delle Piante, C.N.R. Via Madonna del Piano, 10 50019, Sesto fiorentino, Firenze, Italy.
          [2 ] Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie per l'Agricoltura, le Foreste, la Natura e l'Energia (DAFNE), Università degli Studi della Tuscia, San Camillo de Lellis snc-01100, Viterbo, Italy.
          [3 ] INRA Bordeaux, Domaine de l'Hermitage, Génétique et écologie des maladies en Forêt Pierroton, UMR 1202 BIOGECO, 69 route d'Arcachon, 33610, Cestas, France.
          [4 ] Dipartimento di Biotecnologie agrarie, Università degli studi di Firenze, P.le Cascine, 28 50144, Firenze, Italy.
          [5 ] Department Biocontrol and Plant Genetic Resources, Walloon Agricultural Research Centre, Rue de Liroux, 4, B-5030, Gembloux, Belgium.
          [6 ] Department of Forest Protection, Unit of Phytopathology, Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape (BFW), Seckendorff-Gudent-Weg 8, 1131, Vienna, Austria.
          [7 ] Institutul de Cercetari si Amenajari Silvice, Station of Brasov, Closca 13, 500040, Brasov, Romania.
          [8 ] National Agricultural Research Foundation, Forest Research Institute, 570 06, Vassilika, Thessaloniki, Greece.
          [9 ] Latvian State Forest Research Institute "Silava", 111 Rigas str, Salaspils, LV-2169, Latvia.
          [10 ] Finnish Forest Research Institute, Jokiniemenkuja 1, PO Box 18, 01301, Vantaa, Finland.
          [11 ] Institut f. Integrative Biologie - CHN G 66, Universitätstrasse 16, 8092, Zürich, Switzerland.
          [12 ] Department of Forest Protection and Wildlife Management, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University, Zemedelska 3, 613 00, Brno, Czech Republic.
          [13 ] Phytophthora Research and Consultancy, Thomastrasse 75, 83098, Brannenburg, Germany.
          [14 ] Department for Forest Protection, Slovenian Forestry Institute, Večna pot 2, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
          [15 ] Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Institute of Forest Entomology, Forest Pathology, and Forest Protection (IFFF), University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), Hasenauerstraße 38, 1190, Vienna, Austria.
          [16 ] Forest Research Institute, T.G. Masaryka 22, 96092, Zvolen, Slovakia.
          [17 ] Laboratory of Phytopathogenic Microorganisms, Institute of Botany of Nature Research Centre, 08406, Vilnius, Lithuania.
          [18 ] Department of Forest Protection, Forest Research Institute, Sêkocin Stary, ul. Braci Leœnej 3, 05-090, Raszyn, Poland.
          [19 ] INRA, UMR1136 Interactions Arbres-Microorganismes, Champenoux, France.
          [20 ] Department of Forest Protection, Forest Research Institute Baden-Wuerttemberg, Wonnhaldestrasse 4, D-79100, Freiburg, Germany.
          [21 ] Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, PO Box 115, 1431, Ås, Norway.
          [22 ] Ingeniería Forestal y del Medio Natural, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida Virgen del Puerto 2, 10600, Plasencia, Spain.
          [23 ] Institute of Silviculture and Forest Protection, University of West-Hungary, Sopron, Hungary.
          [24 ] NAGREF, Institute of Mediterranean Forest Ecosystems, Terma Alkmanos, 11528, Athens, Greece.
          [25 ] Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), Università degli Studi della Tuscia, San Camillo de Lellis snc-01100, Viterbo, Italy.
          [26 ] Forest Research, Forestry Commission, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey, GU10 4LH, UK.
          [27 ] Department of Plant and Soil Science, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St. Machar Drive, Aberdeen, AB24 3UU, UK.
          [28 ] Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, PO Box 7026, 750 07, Uppsala, Sweden.
          © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.


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