Previous reports have described the appearance of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) cases following interferon-α (IFN-α) therapy, IFN-regulated gene expression is significantly increased in SLE, and an association between SLE and gene variants belonging to IFN downstream pathways has been shown. Based on this, targeting of IFN and of their signaling pathways has appeared to be interesting developments within the field of SLE therapy. Different specific type I IFN antagonists have been studied in clinical trials and some of those have already reached Phase III. A potential approach would be to target IFN receptors rather than IFN themselves. Anifrolumab (previously MEDI-546) is a fully human monoclonal antibody (Ab) that binds to subunit 1 of the type I IFN receptor (IFNAR1), blocking the action of different type I IFNs (IFN-α, IFN-β and IFN-ω). This drug has been assessed in 11 clinical studies: 9 in SLE, 1 in systemic sclerosis and 1 in rheumatoid arthritis. In SLE, clinical development reached Phase I for 1 study and Phases II and III for 5 and 3 trials, respectively. The Phase IIb, randomized control trial (RCT), double-blind, placebo-controlled study of adults with moderate-to-severe SLE (MUSE trial) showed positive results on the composite primary endpoint SRI-4. Greater efficacy was seen in patients with high baseline IFN gene signature compared with those with low baseline IFN gene signature. Anifrolumab also demonstrated promising results on cutaneous and arthritic manifestations, especially among patients with a high IFN gene signature. The pivotal Treatment of Uncontrolled Lupus via the Interferon IFN Pathway (TULIP 1 and 2 studies are now completed. In August 2018, the promoter announced that the TULIP 1 Phase III trial did not reach its primary endpoint. The release of the completed but not yet published Phase II studies and of the TULIP pivotal trials results will further inform us on the actual therapeutic potential of anifrolumab.