This edition deals with archive sources on the life and work of the brain-researcher Theodor Meynert (1833-1892) which touch important aspects of his multifaceted personality. The letter from Wilhelm Wundt underscores the importance of Meynert’s brain research for Wundt’s Principles of physiological psychology. Other documents deal with Meynert’s academic career, which was strongly influenced by the conflict between psychiatrists of the new somatic approach, for which Meynert was a kind of figurehead, and traditional asylum psychiatrists. Finally, this edition presents selected letters, which show his extensive contacts with intellectuals, especially writers of that time. A large number of scholars have argued that Meynert as a scientist was significantly shaped by his multifaceted interests, which are expressed in these letters. In this sense, these materials seem to be of great importance for the understanding of his work.