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      Investigation of interventions to reduce nurses’ medication errors in adult intensive care units: A systematic review

      , ,
      Australian Critical Care
      Elsevier BV

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          Trim and Fill: A Simple Funnel-Plot-Based Method of Testing and Adjusting for Publication Bias in Meta-Analysis

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            Systematic review of the Hawthorne effect: New concepts are needed to study research participation effects☆

            Objectives This study aims to (1) elucidate whether the Hawthorne effect exists, (2) explore under what conditions, and (3) estimate the size of any such effect. Study Design and Setting This systematic review summarizes and evaluates the strength of available evidence on the Hawthorne effect. An inclusive definition of any form of research artifact on behavior using this label, and without cointerventions, was adopted. Results Nineteen purposively designed studies were included, providing quantitative data on the size of the effect in eight randomized controlled trials, five quasiexperimental studies, and six observational evaluations of reporting on one's behavior by answering questions or being directly observed and being aware of being studied. Although all but one study was undertaken within health sciences, study methods, contexts, and findings were highly heterogeneous. Most studies reported some evidence of an effect, although significant biases are judged likely because of the complexity of the evaluation object. Conclusion Consequences of research participation for behaviors being investigated do exist, although little can be securely known about the conditions under which they operate, their mechanisms of effects, or their magnitudes. New concepts are needed to guide empirical studies.
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              Hospital-based medication reconciliation practices: a systematic review.

              Medication discrepancies at care transitions are common and lead to patient harm. Medication reconciliation is a strategy to reduce this risk. To summarize available evidence on medication reconciliation interventions in the hospital setting and to identify the most effective practices. MEDLINE (1966 through February 2012) and a manual search of article bibliographies. Twenty-six controlled studies. Data were extracted on study design, setting, participants, inclusion/exclusion criteria, intervention components, timing, comparison group, outcome measures, and results. Studies were grouped by type of medication reconciliation intervention-pharmacist related, information technology (IT), or other-and were assigned quality ratings using US Preventive Services Task Force criteria. Fifteen of 26 studies reported pharmacist-related interventions, 6 evaluated IT interventions, and 5 studied other interventions. Six studies were classified as good quality. The comparison group for all the studies was usual care; no studies compared different types of interventions. Studies consistently demonstrated a reduction in medication discrepancies (17 of 17 studies), potential adverse drug events (5 of 6 studies), and adverse drug events (2 of 2 studies) but showed an inconsistent reduction in postdischarge health care utilization (improvement in 2 of 8 studies). Key aspects of successful interventions included intensive pharmacy staff involvement and targeting the intervention to a high-risk patient population. Rigorously designed studies comparing different inpatient medication reconciliation practices and their effects on clinical outcomes are scarce. Available evidence supports medication reconciliation interventions that heavily use pharmacy staff and focus on patients at high risk for adverse events. Higher-quality studies are needed to determine the most effective approaches to inpatient medication reconciliation.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                Australian Critical Care
                Australian Critical Care
                Elsevier BV
                10367314
                July 2022
                July 2022
                : 35
                : 4
                : 466-479
                Article
                10.1016/j.aucc.2021.05.012
                61ea5744-64ef-408d-a8c9-9e709da6f783
                © 2022

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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