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      Microbial biosensors: a review.

      Biosensors & Bioelectronics
      Bacterial Physiological Phenomena, Biological Assay, instrumentation, methods, Biosensing Techniques, Electrochemical Techniques, Equipment Design, Food Analysis, Luminescent Measurements, Spectrometry, Fluorescence

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          Abstract

          A microbial biosensor is an analytical device which integrates microorganism(s) with a physical transducer to generate a measurable signal proportional to the concentration of analytes. In recent years, a large number of microbial biosensors have been developed for environmental, food, and biomedical applications. Starting with the discussion of various sensing techniques commonly used in microbial biosensing, this review article concentrates on the summarization of the recent progress in the fabrication and application of microbial biosensors based on amperometry, potentiometry, conductometry, voltammetry, microbial fuel cell, fluorescence, bioluminescence, and colorimetry, respectively. Prospective strategies for the design of future microbial biosensors will also be discussed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

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