Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory disease caused by chronic bronchitis, which seriously threatens the life safety of patients. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) has great advantages in its treatment. Here, we explore the effect of NIPPV on prognosis and blood gas level in COPD patients complicated with respiratory failure (RF). A case control study was retrospectively analyzed, where 36 COPD patients with RF were regarded as the regular group to carry on the routine treatment, and 42 patients were assigned to the research group to carry out the routine treatment plus NIPPV. The monofactorial analysis showed that the overall response rate, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC in the research group were higher than those in the regular group, while partial pressure of arterial carbondioxide (PaCO 2 ), posttreatment endotracheal intubation (EI), length of stay (LOS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF- α ), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1 β , Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) scores in the research group were lower than those in the regular group. These results indicated that NIPPV can improve the curative effect of emergency medicine patients with RF, improve BG level and PF, reduce inflammation, and facilitate patient's recovery.