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      Biobehavioral approaches to the treatment of essential hypertension.

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          Abstract

          Despite recent advances in the medical management of hypertension, chronically elevated blood pressure remains a major health problem in the United States, affecting almost 50 million Americans. It is widely recognized that lifestyle factors contribute to the development and maintenance of elevated blood pressure. This article critically reviews current approaches to the nonpharmacological treatment of high blood pressure and highlights outcome studies of exercise, weight loss and dietary modification, and stress management and relaxation therapies. Methodological issues in the assessment and treatment of hypertension are discussed, along with possible mechanisms by which lifestyle modification may reduce elevated blood pressure.

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          Most cited references 171

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          Waist circumference and abdominal sagittal diameter: best simple anthropometric indexes of abdominal visceral adipose tissue accumulation and related cardiovascular risk in men and women.

          The amount of abdominal visceral adipose tissue measured by computed tomography is a critical correlate of the potentially "atherogenic" metabolic disturbances associated with abdominal obesity. In this study conducted in samples of 81 men and 70 women, data are presented on the anthropometric correlates of abdominal visceral adipose tissue accumulation and related cardiovascular disease risk factors (triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, fasting and postglucose insulin and glucose levels). Results indicate that the waist circumference and the abdominal sagittal diameter are better correlates of abdominal visceral adipose tissue accumulation than the commonly used waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). In women, the waist circumference and the abdominal sagittal diameter also appeared more closely related to the metabolic variables than the WHR. When the samples were divided into quintiles of waist circumference, WHR or abdominal sagittal diameter, it was noted that increasing values of waist circumference and abdominal sagittal diameter were more consistently associated with increases in fasting and postglucose insulin levels than increasing values of WHR, especially in women. These findings suggest that the waist circumference or the abdominal sagittal diameter, rather than the WHR, should be used as indexes of abdominal visceral adipose tissue deposition and in the assessment of cardiovascular risk. It is suggested from these data that waist circumference values above approximately 100 cm, or abdominal sagittal diameter values > 25 cm are most likely to be associated with potentially "atherogenic" metabolic disturbances.
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            Hypertension and associated metabolic abnormalities--the role of insulin resistance and the sympathoadrenal system.

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              Implications of small reductions in diastolic blood pressure for primary prevention.

               N R Cook (1995)
              To estimate the impact of small reductions in the population distribution of diastolic blood pressure (DBP), such as those potentially achievable by population-wide lifestyle modification, on incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. Published data from the Framingham Heart Study, a longitudinal cohort study, and from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II, a national population survey, were used to examine the impact of a population-wide strategy aimed at reducing DBP by an average of 2 mm Hg in a population including normotensive subjects. White men and women aged 35 to 64 years in the United States. Incidence of CHD and stroke, including transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). Data from overviews of observational studies and randomized trials suggest that a 2-mm Hg reduction in DBP would result in a 17% decrease in the prevalence of hypertension as well as a 6% reduction in the risk of CHD and a 15% reduction in risk of stroke and TIAs. From an application of these results to US white men and women aged 35 to 64 years, it is estimated that a successful population intervention alone could reduce CHD incidence more than could medical treatment for all those with a DBP of 95 mm Hg or higher. It could prevent 84% of the number prevented by medical treatment for all those with a DBP of 90 mm Hg or higher. For stroke (including TIAs), a population-wide 2-mm Hg reduction could prevent 93% of events prevented by medical treatment for those with a DBP of 95 mm Hg or higher and 69% of events for treatment for those with a DBP of 90 mm Hg or higher. A combination strategy of both a population reduction in DBP and targeted medical intervention is most effective and could double or triple the impact of medical treatment alone. Adding a population-based intervention to existing levels of hypertension treatment could prevent an estimated additional 67,000 CHD events (6%) and 34,000 stroke and TIA events (13%) annually among all those aged 35 to 64 years in the United States. A small reduction of 2 mm Hg in DBP in the mean of the population distribution, in addition to medical treatment, could have a great public health impact on the number of CHD and stroke events prevented. Whether such DBP reductions can be achieved in the population through lifestyle interventions, in particular through sodium reduction, depends on the results of ongoing primary prevention trials as well as the cooperation of the food industry, government agencies, and health education professionals.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
                Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
                American Psychological Association (APA)
                1939-2117
                0022-006X
                2002
                2002
                : 70
                : 3
                : 569-589
                Article
                12090370
                © 2002

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