Uremic patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis demonstrate a secondary systemic carnitine deficiency. We studied the effect of carnitine replacement with high doses ( L-carnitine, 3 g/day) similar to those used in the treatment of primary systemic carnitine deficiency. 10 uremic patients on hemodialysis were randomly selected into a control group (4 patients) treated by placebo and a treatment group (6 patients) treated by L-carnitine. Plasma lipoprotein concentration and composition as well as platelet aggregation were studied before and after treatment. Following carnitine administration, a paradoxical rise in plasma triglyceride concentration from 180 ± 66 to 219 ± 88 mg% (p < 0.05) was noted. No other significant changes in lipoprotein concentration and composition or in plasma apoprotein A-I and B concentration were observed. Carnitine treatment caused a significant rise in platelet aggregation induced by epinephrine, ADP, and thrombin. These findings suggest a harmful effect of L-carnitine replacement therapy when given in high doses, causing aggravation of uremic hypertriglyceridemia and increased platelet aggregation in patients predisposed to thromboembolic phenomena.