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      Increased Levels of Glutathione S Transferases and Appearance of Novel Alpha Class Isoenzymes in Kidneys of Mice Exposed to Mercuric Chloride

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          Abstract

          Glutathione S transferases (GST) are a family of enzymes that detoxify electrophilic xenobiotics. This enzyme family was examined in kidneys of mice exposed to mercuric chloride, a known nephrotoxin, because GST have been shown to protect cells against toxicant-induced damage and may serve as biomarkers for toxicant exposure. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of mercuric chloride on GST activity, isoenzyme levels, and cellular localization in the kidney of Swiss Webster mice. The cellular localizations of alpha, mu, and pi class GST in the kidneys of control and mercuric chloride treated mice were studied immunohistochemically. The GST isoenzyme levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The mice treated with mercuric chloride had (1) increased amounts of GSTA1/A2 protein in kidney homogenates as compared with controls when analyzed by chromatography and electrophoresis; (2) two new isoforms of the alpha isoenzyme in kidney as demonstrated by Western blot, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and high-performance liquid chromatography, and (3) increased reactivity between antibodies, against GSTA1/A2 or GSTM1 isoenzymes, and cells in the proximal and distal renal tubules as shown by immunohistochemical techniques. The authors conclude that the GSTA1/A2 may protect those cells in the proximal and distal tubules of the renal cortex from toxicant effects of mercuric chloride. This would be one general mechanism for cell protection against a wide variety of toxicants including heavy metals and halogenated aromatics.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          NEF
          Nephron
          10.1159/issn.1660-8151
          Nephron
          S. Karger AG
          1660-8151
          2235-3186
          1997
          1997
          23 December 2008
          : 77
          : 4
          : 452-460
          Affiliations
          Department of the Neurology, Environmental Toxicology Center, Waisman Center, and Departments of Pediatrics and Biomolecular Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisc. USA
          Article
          190324 Nephron 1997;77:452–460
          10.1159/000190324
          9434069
          © 1997 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 9
          Categories
          Original Paper

          Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

          Enzyme induction, Mercury toxicity, Glutathione S transferase

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