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      Protocol and Baseline Data of a Multicentre Prospective Double-Blinded Randomized Study of Intravenous Iron on Functional Status in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

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          Background: Iron deficiency (ID) is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to an inadequate dietary intake of iron, poor absorption from the gut and increased iron losses. In addition to preventing anaemia, iron is important for normal heart function, being involved in processes that generate a necessary continuous energy supply. Treatment with intravenous (IV) iron has been suggested to lead to improvement in heart function and well-being in people with ID and CKD. In the Iron and the Heart Study, we hypothesized that IV iron treatment will primarily improve exercise capacity and may secondarily impact the feeling of well-being in comparison to placebo over 3 months in non-anaemic CKD patients who have ID. Methods: This was a prospective double-blinded explorative randomized, multi-centre study designed to compare the effects of IV iron supplementation and placebo in iron-deficient but not anaemic patients with established CKD stages 3b-5 on functional status, and in addition cardiac structure and function. The study included 54 adults with serum ferritin (SF) <100 µg/L and/or transferrin saturation <20%, randomized in a 1:1 ratio to 1,000 mg IV ferric derisomaltose or placebo. Following randomization, participants underwent baseline assessments and then received IV iron or placebo infusion. Each participant was followed up at months 1 and 3. At each visit, patients underwent clinical review, measurements of hematinics and haemoglobin (Hb), and assessments of physical function and well-being. The primary outcome was exercise capacity using the 6-minute walk test. Secondary objectives included effects on hematinic profiles and Hb concentration, changes in myocardial parameters assessed with speckle tracking echocardiography and change in patients’ quality of life. Results: Between October 2016 and April 2018, 55 from 326 individuals from 3 UK centres attended screening and were randomized. The mean (SD) age was 59.6 (11.7) years, 26 (48%) patients were male, the majority were Caucasians (42; 78%), and 32 (59%) were non-smokers. The mean (SD) body mass index was 30.3 (6.5); SF was 66.3 (44.1) µg/L, TS was 20.1 (7.4) % and Hb was 128.7 (10.1) g/L at randomization for the whole group. Mean (SD) serum creatinine was 186.7 (58.6) µmol/L, estimated glomerular filtration rate was 31.1 (9.6) mL/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup> and urinary albumin and protein/creatinine ratios 60.9 (133.3) and 83.8 (128.4) mg/mmol respectively. The mean (SD) C-reactive protein was 5.0 (4.4) mg/L and the mean (SD) 6-minute walk distance at baseline was 401.2 (120.2) m. Conclusion: The Iron and the Heart Trial will provide important information on the short-term effects of IV iron treatment in CKD patients with ID without anaemia on measures of exercise capacity, quality of life and mechanistic data on myocardial structure and function. Trial Registration: European Clinical Trials Database (No. 2014-004133-6; REC no. 14/YH/1209; Sponsor ref. R1766).

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          Author and article information

          Am J Nephrol
          American Journal of Nephrology
          S. Karger AG
          June 2020
          29 April 2020
          : 51
          : 6
          : 493-500
          aHull University Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Hull, United Kingdom
          bUniversity of York, York, United Kingdom
          cHull York Medical School, York, United Kingdom
          dKing’s College Hospital, London, United Kingdom
          eSalford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Salford, United Kingdom
          Author notes
          *Prof. Sunil Bhandari, Hull University Teaching Hospitals NHS, Trust and Hull York Medical School, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull HU3 2JZ (UK), E-Mail
          507872 Am J Nephrol 2020;51:493–500
          © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Pages: 8
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