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      Generalidades del cultivo de garbanzo y alternativa biológica para el control de la Marchitez Translated title: Generalities of the cultivation of chickpea and biological alternative for the control of the Marchitez

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          Abstract

          RESUMEN El garbanzo (Cicer arietinum L.), es una de las principales fuentes de alimentación humana y animal y se sitúa en la lista de leguminosas más cultivadas del mundo, después de la soya (Glycine max), el haba (Vicia faba), los frijoles (Phaseolus vulgaris) y los chícharos o guisantes (Pisum sativum). Entre los factores bióticos que limitan una alta producción de garbanzo, se encuentran las enfermedades producidas por diferentes microorganismos patógenos del suelo. La Marchitez o Fusariosis, agente causal Fusarium spp., es la enfermedad más importante del cultivo de garbanzo, incide de forma negativa sobre los componentes del rendimiento y la calidad del grano. Esta enfermedad se presenta de forma ascendente y descendente según la especie, las plantas enfermas abortan sus flores y los pocos granos que logran formarse son de menor calibre. Para el control de esta enfermedad se utilizan medidas agrotécnicas, químicas y biológicas, siendo estas últimas muy efectivas desde el ámbito económico, social y ambiental. La lucha biológica con productos con base a cepas de Trichoderma ha tenido una aceptación favorable, y generalizada en la agricultura cubana, por mostrar varios mecanismos de acción con efectos directos e indirectos en la reducción de microorganismos fitopatógenos. En este sentido, la Marchitez es una enfermedad de difícil control, por lo que conocer sobre la biología del patógeno y su interacción con el hospedante son aspectos importantes para establecer un control más eficiente.

          Translated abstract

          ABSTRACT The chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), is one of the main sources of human and animal food and is placed on the list of the most cultivated legumes in the world, after soybeans (Glycine max), beans (Vicia faba), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and peas or pea (Pisum sativum). Among the biotic factors that limit a high production of chickpea, are the diseases produced by different pathogenic microorganisms of the soil. The Withering or Fusariosis, the causative agent Fusarium spp., Is the most important disease of the chickpea crop, it negatively affects the components of the yield and grain quality. This disease occurs ascending and descending according to the species, sick plants abort their flowers and the few grains that manage to form are of smaller caliber. To control this disease, agro-technical, chemical and biological estrategies are used, the latter being very effective from the economic, social and environmental point of view. The biological fight with products based on Trichoderma strains has had a favorable acceptance, and generalized in Cuban agriculture, for showing several mechanisms of action with direct and indirect effects in the reduction of phytopathogenic microorganisms. In this sense, the Wilt is a disease of difficult control, so knowing about the biology of the pathogen and its interaction with the host are important aspects to establish a more efficient control.

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          Most cited references31

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          Myths and Dogmas of Biocontrol Changes in Perceptions Derived from Research onTrichoderma harzinumT-22

          G. Harman (2000)
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            The Molecular Biology of the Interactions Between Trichoderma spp., Phytopathogenic Fungi, and Plants.

            ABSTRACT Trichoderma-based biofungicides are a reality in agriculture, with more than 50 formulations today available as registered products worldwide. Several strategies have been applied to identify the main genes and compounds involved in this complex, three-way cross-talk between the fungal antagonist, the plant, and microbial pathogens. Proteome and genome analysis have greatly enhanced our ability to conduct holistic and genome-based functional studies. We have identified and determined the role of a variety of novel genes and gene-products, including ABC transporters, enzymes and other proteins that produce or act as novel elicitors of induced resistance, proteins responsible for a gene-for-gene avirulent interaction between Trichoderma spp. and plants, mycoparasitism-related inducers, plant proteins specifically induced by Trichoderma, etc. We have transgenically demonstrated the ability of Trichoderma spp. to transfer heterologous proteins into plant during root colonization, and have used green fluorescent protein and other markers to study the interaction in vivo and in situ between Trichoderma spp. and the fungal pathogen or the plant.
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              Biological control of fungal pathogens.

              I Chet, J Inbar (1994)
              Biological control of soil-borne plant pathogens is a potential alternative to the use of chemical pesticides, which have already been proved to be harmful to the environment. Several strains of the fungus Trichoderma have been isolated and found to be effective biocontrol agents of various soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi under greenhouse and field conditions. Different application approaches have been used including integration of Trichoderma with reduced doses of chemical agents. Biochemical and molecular biology studies carried out to explore the mechanisms involved in biological control revealed that Trichoderma is a rather specific mycoparasite. Lectins were found to be involved in the recognition between Trichoderma and its host fungi, whereas chitinase is involved in the degradation of the host cell wall. Genetic engineering techniques were employed in order to increase the effectiveness, stability, and biocontrol capacity of Trichoderma spp. as well as other biocontrol agents, such as Pseudomonass spp. and Rhizobium.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ctr
                Cultivos Tropicales
                cultrop
                Ediciones INCA (La Habana, , Cuba )
                0258-5936
                1819-4087
                December 2019
                : 40
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [1] Los Palacios Pinar del Río orgnameUnidad Científico Tecnológica de Base "Los Palacios" Cuba
                [2] Los Palacios Pinar del Río orgnameEmpresa Agroindustrial de Granos (EAIG) "Los Palacios" Cuba
                [3] San José de las Lajas Mayabeque orgnameCentro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA) Cuba
                Article
                S0258-59362019000400010 S0258-5936(19)04000400010
                622133c7-5f05-478a-a458-38ee971ff7cf

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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