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      Exosomes Derived from MicroRNA-146a-5p-Enriched Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Alleviate Intracerebral Hemorrhage by Inhibiting Neuronal Apoptosis and Microglial M1 Polarization

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          Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating type of stroke with high mortality, and the effective therapies for ICH remain to be explored. Exosomes (Exos) have been found to play important roles in cell communication by transferring molecules, including microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs). MiRNAs are critical regulators of genes involved in many various biological processes and have been demonstrated to aggravate or alleviate brain damages induced by ICH. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Exos derived from miR-146a-5p-enriched bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs-miR-146a-5p-Exos) on experimental ICH.


          ICH was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by an intrastriatal injection of collagenase type IV. At 24 h after surgery, Exos were administrated. For detecting apoptotic cells, TUNEL staining was performed using an in situ Cell Death Detection Kit. Fluoro-Jade B staining was performed to detect degenerating neurons. Immunofluorescence assay was performed to detect the expression of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and OX-42. The binding of miR-146a-5p and its target genes was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay.


          At 24 h after surgery, BMSCs-miR-146a-5p-Exos administration significantly improved neurological function, reduced apoptotic and degenerative neurons, and inhibited inflammatory response. Furthermore, miR-146a-5p-enriched Exos obviously inhibited the M1 polarization of microglia after ICH in rats, accompanied by the reduced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators releasing by M1 microglia including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Finally, we observed that miR-146a-5p directly targeted interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase1 (IRAK1) and nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5), which contributed to the inflammation response and the polarization of M1 microglia/macrophages.


          We demonstrated that miR-146a-5p-riched BMSCs-Exos could offer neuroprotection and functional improvements after ICH through reducing neuronal apoptosis, and inflammation associated with the inhibition of microglial M1 polarization by downregulating the expression of IRAK1 and NFAT5.

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          Most cited references 38

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          Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

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            Inflammation in intracerebral hemorrhage: from mechanisms to clinical translation.

            Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 10-15% of all strokes and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Currently, no effective medical treatment is available to improve functional outcomes in patients with ICH. Potential therapies targeting secondary brain injury are arousing a great deal of interest in translational studies. Increasing evidence has shown that inflammation is the key contributor of ICH-induced secondary brain injury. Inflammation progresses in response to various stimuli produced after ICH. Hematoma components initiate inflammatory signaling via activation of microglia, subsequently releasing proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines to attract peripheral inflammatory infiltration. Hemoglobin (Hb), heme, and iron released after red blood cell lysis aggravate ICH-induced inflammatory injury. Danger associated molecular patterns such as high mobility group box 1 protein, released from damaged or dead cells, trigger inflammation in the late stage of ICH. Preclinical studies have identified inflammatory signaling pathways that are involved in microglial activation, leukocyte infiltration, toll-like receptor (TLR) activation, and danger associated molecular pattern regulation in ICH. Recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis of ICH-induced inflammatory injury have facilitated the identification of several novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of ICH. This review summarizes recent progress concerning the mechanisms underlying ICH-induced inflammation. We focus on the inflammatory signaling pathways involved in microglial activation and TLR signaling, and explore potential therapeutic interventions by targeting the removal of hematoma components and inhibition of TLR signaling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Systemic administration of cell-free exosomes generated by human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells cultured under 2D and 3D conditions improves functional recovery in rats after traumatic brain injury.

              Multipotent human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) improve functional outcome after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). The present study was designed to investigate whether systemic administration of cell-free exosomes generated from hMSCs cultured in 2-dimensional (2D) conventional conditions or in 3-dimensional (3D) collagen scaffolds promote functional recovery and neurovascular remodeling in rats after TBI. Wistar rats were subjected to TBI induced by controlled cortical impact; 24 h later tail vein injection of exosomes derived from hMSCs cultured under 2D or 3D conditions or an equal number of liposomes as a treatment control were performed. The modified Morris water maze, neurological severity score and footfault tests were employed to evaluate cognitive and sensorimotor functional recovery. Animals were sacrificed at 35 days after TBI. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed for measurements of lesion volume, neurovascular remodeling (angiogenesis and neurogenesis), and neuroinflammation. Compared with liposome-treated control, exosome-treatments did not reduce lesion size but significantly improved spatial learning at 33-35 days measured by the Morris water maze test, and sensorimotor functional recovery, i.e., reduced neurological deficits and footfault frequency, observed at 14-35 days post injury (p < 0.05). Exosome treatments significantly increased the number of newborn endothelial cells in the lesion boundary zone and dentate gyrus, and significantly increased the number of newborn mature neurons in the dentate gyrus as well as reduced neuroinflammation. Exosomes derived from hMSCs cultured in 3D scaffolds provided better outcome in spatial learning than exosomes from hMSCs cultured in the 2D condition. In conclusion, hMSC-generated exosomes significantly improve functional recovery in rats after TBI, at least in part, by promoting endogenous angiogenesis and neurogenesis and reducing neuroinflammation. Thus, exosomes derived from hMSCs may be a novel cell-free therapy for TBI, and hMSC-scaffold generated exosomes may selectively enhance spatial learning.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                05 August 2020
                : 14
                : 3143-3158
                [1 ]Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University , Harbin 150001, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Chunyan Wang Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University , 23 Youzheng Street, Harbin150001, People’s Republic of China Tel/Fax +86-451-85555130 Email wxqsjnk1@163.com
                © 2020 Duan et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 8, References: 47, Pages: 16
                Funded by: the National Natural Science Foundation of China;
                Funded by: the Doctoral Foundation of the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University;
                Funded by: the Post-doctoral Science Foundation of China;
                Funded by: the Post-doctoral Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province;
                This study was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81601063), the Doctoral Foundation of the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University (No. 2017B015), the Post-doctoral Science Foundation of China (No. 2016M591550), and the Post-doctoral Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province (No. LBH-Z16117).
                Original Research


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