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      Self-reported nonrestorative sleep in fibromyalgia – relationship to impairments of body functions, personal function factors, and quality of life

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          The purpose of this study was: 1) to determine variables that might characterize good or bad sleep; and 2) to describe the relationship between sleep, impairment of body functions, personal function factors, and quality of life based on quality of sleep in women with fibromyalgia (FM).


          This cross-sectional descriptive study included 224 consecutive patients diagnosed at a specialist center. These patients were mailed a questionnaire concerning sleep, body functions, personal factors, and health-related quality of life. In total, 145 completed questionnaires were collected.


          Using sleep variables (sleep quality, waking up unrefreshed, and tiredness when getting up), we identified two subgroups – the good sleep subgroup and the bad sleep subgroup – of women with FM. These subgroups exhibited significantly different characteristics concerning pain intensity, psychological variables (depressed mood, anxiety, catastrophizing, and self-efficacy), impairments of body functions, and generic and health-related quality of life. The good sleep subgroup reported a significantly better situation, including higher employment/study rate. The bad sleep subgroup reported a greater use of sleep medication. Five variables determined inclusion into either a good sleep or a bad sleep subgroup: pain in the evening, self-efficacy, anxiety, and according to the Short Form health survey role emotional and physical functioning.


          This study found that it was possible to identify two subgroups of women with FM based on quality of sleep variables. The two subgroups differed significantly with respect to pain, psychological factors, impairments of body functions, and perceived quality of life, where the subgroup with bad sleep had a worse situation.

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          Most cited references 33

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          The fibromyalgia impact questionnaire: development and validation.

          An instrument has been developed to assess the current health status of women with the fibromyalgia syndrome. The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) is a brief 10-item, self-administered instrument that measures physical functioning, work status, depression, anxiety, sleep, pain, stiffness, fatigue, and well being. We describe its development and validation. This initial assessment indicates that the FIQ has sufficient evidence of reliability and validity to warrant further testing in both research and clinical situations.
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            The prevalence and characteristics of fibromyalgia in the general population.

            To determine the prevalence and characteristics of fibromyalgia in the general population. A random sample of 3,006 persons in Wichita, KS, were characterized according to the presence of no pain, non-widespread pain, and widespread pain. A subsample of 391 persons, including 193 with widespread pain, were examined and interviewed in detail. The prevalence of fibromyalgia was 2.0% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4, 2.7) for both sexes, 3.4% (95% CI 2.3, 4.6) for women, and 0.5% (95% CI 0.0, 1.0) for men. The prevalence of the syndrome increased with age, with highest values attained between 60 and 79 years (> 7.0% in women). Demographic, psychological, dolorimetry, and symptom factors were associated with fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia is common in the population, and occurs often in older persons. Characteristic features of fibromyalgia--pain threshold and symptoms--are similar in community and clinic populations, but overall severity, pain, and functional disability are more severe in the clinic population.
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              Patient perspectives on the impact of fibromyalgia.

              The objective of this study was to elicit and assess important symptom domains and the impact of fibromyalgia on patients' quality of life and functioning from a patient's perspective. The intention was to collect this information as part of an overall effort to overcome shortcomings of existing outcome measures in fibromyalgia. This was a qualitative study in which six focus group sessions with 48 women diagnosed with fibromyalgia were conducted to elicit concepts and ideas to assess the impact of fibromyalgia on their lives. The focus groups conducted with fibromyalgia patients identified symptom domains that had the greatest impact on their quality of life including pain, sleep disturbance, fatigue, depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. Fibromyalgia had a substantial negative impact on social and occupational function. Patients reported disrupted relationships with family and friends, social isolation, reduced activities of daily living and leisure activities, avoidance of physical activity, and loss of career or inability to advance in careers or education. The findings from the focus groups revealed that fibromyalgia has a substantial negative impact on patients' lives. A comprehensive assessment of the multiple symptoms domains associated with fibromyalgia and the impact of fibromyalgia on multidimensional aspects of function should be a routine part of the care of fibromyalgia patients.

                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                10 August 2015
                : 8
                : 499-505
                [1 ]Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden
                [2 ]Rehabilitation Centre and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden
                [3 ]Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Björn Börsbo, Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Linköping University, SE-581 85 Linköping, Sweden, Tel +46 70 792 2161, Email bjorn.borsbo@ 123456liu.se
                © 2015 Liedberg et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                sleep disturbance, activities of daily living, chronic pain


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