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      Four new species of the millipede genus Eutrichodesmus Silvestri, 1910 from Laos, including two with reduced ozopores (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Haplodesmidae)

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          Abstract

          Abstract

          Laos has large areas of primary forest with a largely unexplored fauna. This is evidenced by millipedes, class Diplopoda , with fewer than 60 species being recorded from the country. In the widespread Southeast Asian “Star Millipede” genus Eutrichodesmus Silvestri, 1910 (family Haplodesmidae ), only two of 49 recorded species have been found in Laos. Four new species of Star Millipedes are here described from caves in Laos: Eutrichodesmus steineri Liu & Wesener, sp. n., Eutrichodesmus deporatus Liu & Wesener, sp. n., Eutrichodesmus paraster Liu & Wesener, sp. n. and Eutrichodesmus parvus Liu & Wesener, sp. n.. A fifth species, for which only a female is available, remains unnamed. The defensive glands (ozopores) are found to be strongly or entirely suppressed in two of the new species, Eutrichodesmus deporatus Liu & Wesener, sp. n. and Eutrichodesmus paraster Liu & Wesener, sp. n., both troglobionts, which is new to the family. All of the Star Millipedes were collected during Northern Lao-European Cave Project faunal surveys conducted by the Senckenberg Museum, Frankfurt. A key to the six species of Eutrichodesmus currently known to occur in Laos is provided.

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          Most cited references 49

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          The integrative future of taxonomy

          Background Taxonomy is the biological discipline that identifies, describes, classifies and names extant and extinct species and other taxa. Nowadays, species taxonomy is confronted with the challenge to fully incorporate new theory, methods and data from disciplines that study the origin, limits and evolution of species. Results Integrative taxonomy has been proposed as a framework to bring together these conceptual and methodological developments. Here we review perspectives for an integrative taxonomy that directly bear on what species are, how they can be discovered, and how much diversity is on Earth. Conclusions We conclude that taxonomy needs to be pluralistic to improve species discovery and description, and to develop novel protocols to produce the much-needed inventory of life in a reasonable time. To cope with the large number of candidate species revealed by molecular studies of eukaryotes, we propose a classification scheme for those units that will facilitate the subsequent assembly of data sets for the formal description of new species under the Linnaean system, and will ultimately integrate the activities of taxonomists and molecular biologists.
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            The state and conservation of Southeast Asian biodiversity

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              The origins of the giant pill-millipedes from Madagascar (Diplopoda: Sphaerotheriida: Arthrosphaeridae).

              Giant pill-millipedes (order Sphaerotheriida) are large-bodied millipedes without poison glands which can roll-up into a complete ball. Their disconnected area of distribution spanning South Africa, Madagascar, India, SE Asia, Australia and New Zealand makes them interesting model organisms for biogeographic studies. The here presented phylogeny is based on a molecular dataset covering all areas of distribution with a special focus on Madagascar, where some species of giant pill-millipedes show island gigantism, reaching the size of a baseball. For our study, two mitochondrial genes (partial 16S rRNA and COI) as well as the complete nuclear 18S rDNA were sequenced. While many recent vertebrate studies hint that the ancestors of the recent Malagasy fauna crossed the >350 km wide Mozambique Channel several times, no such crossing was discovered in the Sphaerotheriida. For the first time in a molecular phylogenetic study of soil arthropods, a Madagascar-India group, the family Arthrosphaeridae, is recovered, hinting to a Gondwanan origin of the Sphaerotheriida. The Malagasy-Indian family Arthrosphaeridae forms a monophyletic, statistically well-supported group in all obtained trees. The giant pill-millipedes from Madagascar are paraphyletic because the Malagasy genus Sphaeromimus is the sister-taxon of the Indian Arthrosphaera. In Sphaeromimus, an ecotone shift occurred only once: the spiny forest species Sphaeromimus musicus forms the sister-clade to the species collected in rainforests and littoral rainforests. The two species of the Malagasy genus Zoosphaerium which express island gigantism form a monophyletic group in some trees, but these trees lack good statistical support. Deeper nodes inside the Sphaerotheriida, like the position of the Australian genera Procyliosoma and Epicyliosoma, the Southeast Asian family Zephroniidae and the South African genus Sphaerotherium could not be resolved. This study is the first genetic study inside the order Sphaerotheriida and provides a proper basis for future molecular biogeographic studies in millipedes and soil organisms from Madagascar. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                ZooKeys
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2017
                8 March 2017
                : 660
                : 43-65
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Zoological Research Museum A. Koenig, Leibniz Institute for Animal Biodiversity, Adenauerallee 160, Bonn 53113, Germany
                [2 ] Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, 483 Wushanlu, Guangzhou 510642, China
                [3 ] Institute for Problems of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky pr. 33, Moscow 119071, Russia
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Thomas Wesener ( t.wesener@ 123456zfmk.de )

                Academic editor: R. Mesibov

                Article
                10.3897/zookeys.660.11780
                5549529
                Weixin Liu, Sergei Golovatch, Thomas Wesener

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funding
                Funded by: China Scholarship Council 501100004543 http://doi.org/10.13039/501100004543
                Categories
                Research Article

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