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      Height and timing of growth spurt during puberty in young people living with vertically acquired HIV in Europe and Thailand

      (Collab)

      AIDS (London, England)

      Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

      Europe, growth, height, HIV, perinatal, puberty, Thailand

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          Objective:

          The aim of this study was to describe growth during puberty in young people with vertically acquired HIV.

          Design:

          Pooled data from 12 paediatric HIV cohorts in Europe and Thailand.

          Methods:

          One thousand and ninety-four children initiating a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or boosted protease inhibitor based regimen aged 1–10 years were included. Super Imposition by Translation And Rotation (SITAR) models described growth from age 8 years using three parameters (average height, timing and shape of the growth spurt), dependent on age and height-for-age z-score (HAZ) (WHO references) at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Multivariate regression explored characteristics associated with these three parameters.

          Results:

          At ART initiation, median age and HAZ was 6.4 [interquartile range (IQR): 2.8, 9.0] years and −1.2 (IQR: −2.3 to −0.2), respectively. Median follow-up was 9.1 (IQR: 6.9, 11.4) years. In girls, older age and lower HAZ at ART initiation were independently associated with a growth spurt which occurred 0.41 (95% confidence interval 0.20–0.62) years later in children starting ART age 6 to 10 years compared with 1 to 2 years and 1.50 (1.21–1.78) years later in those starting with HAZ less than −3 compared with HAZ at least −1. Later growth spurts in girls resulted in continued height growth into later adolescence. In boys starting ART with HAZ less than −1, growth spurts were later in children starting ART in the oldest age group, but for HAZ at least −1, there was no association with age. Girls and boys who initiated ART with HAZ at least −1 maintained a similar height to the WHO reference mean.

          Conclusion:

          Stunting at ART initiation was associated with later growth spurts in girls. Children with HAZ at least −1 at ART initiation grew in height at the level expected in HIV negative children of a comparable age.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Adult consequences of growth failure in early childhood123

          Background: Growth failure is associated with adverse consequences, but studies need to control adequately for confounding. Objective: We related height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and stunting at age 24 mo to adult human capital, marriage, fertility, health, and economic outcomes. Design: In 2002–2004, we collected data from 1338 Guatemalan adults (aged 25–42 y) who were studied as children in 1969–1977. We used instrumental variable regression to correct for estimation bias and adjusted for potentially confounding factors. Results: A 1-SD increase in HAZ was associated with more schooling (0.78 grades) and higher test scores for reading and nonverbal cognitive skills (0.28 and 0.25 SDs, respectively), characteristics of marriage partners (1.39 y older, 1.02 grade more schooling, and 1.01 cm taller) and, for women, a higher age at first birth (0.77 y) and fewer number of pregnancies and children (0.63 and 0.43, respectively). A 1-SD increase in HAZ was associated with increased household per capita expenditure (21%) and a lower probability of living in poverty (10 percentage points). Conversely, being stunted at 2 y was associated with less schooling, a lower test performance, a lower household per capita expenditure, and an increased probability of living in poverty. For women, stunting was associated with a lower age at first birth and higher number of pregnancies and children. There was little relation between either HAZ or stunting and adult health. Conclusion: Growth failure in early life has profound adverse consequences over the life course on human, social, and economic capital.
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            Effects of obesity on human sexual development.

            Puberty is a period of physical and psychological maturation, with long-term effects on health. During the 20(th) century, a secular trend towards earlier puberty occurred in association with improvements in nutrition. The worldwide pandemic of childhood obesity has renewed interest in the relationship between body composition in childhood and the timing and tempo of puberty. Limited evidence suggests that earlier puberty is associated with a tendency towards central fat deposition; therefore, pubertal status needs to be carefully considered in the categorization of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity. In the other direction, rapid early weight gain is associated with advanced puberty in both sexes, and a clear association exists between increasing BMI and earlier pubertal development in girls. Evidence in boys is less clear, with the majority of studies showing obesity to be associated with earlier puberty and voice break, although a subgroup of boys with obesity exhibits late puberty, perhaps as a variation of constitutional delay in growth and puberty. The possible mechanisms linking adiposity with pubertal timing are numerous, but leptin, adipocytokines and gut peptides are central players. Other possible mediators include genetic variation and environmental factors such as endocrine disrupting chemicals. This Review presents current evidence on this topic, highlighting inconsistencies and opportunities for future research.
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              Age at onset of puberty predicts bone mass in young adulthood.

              To determine whether the commencement and length of puberty influences dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) values of bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in the axial and appendicular skeleton at skeletal maturity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AIDS
                AIDS
                AIDS
                AIDS (London, England)
                Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
                0269-9370
                1473-5571
                1 October 2019
                09 July 2019
                : 33
                : 12
                : 1897-1910
                Author notes
                Correspondence to Siobhan Crichton, PhD, MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL, 90 High Holborn, London WC1 V 6LJ, UK. Tel: +44 0 20 7670 4913; e-mail: s.crichton@ 123456ucl.ac.uk
                Article
                AIDS-D-18-01038
                10.1097/QAD.0000000000002294
                6738540
                31274534
                Copyright © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

                Product
                Categories
                Epidemiology and Social
                Custom metadata
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                europe, growth, height, hiv, perinatal, puberty, thailand

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