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      Supplementation with probiotics modifies gut flora and attenuates liver fat accumulation in rat nonalcoholic fatty liver disease model

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          Abstract

          This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between gut probiotic flora and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in a diet-induced rat model, and to compare the effects of two different probiotic strains on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 4 groups for 12 weeks: control (standard rat chow), model (fat-rich diet), Lactobacillus (fat-rich diet plus Lactobacillus acidophilus), and Bifidobacterium (fat-rich diet plus Bifidobacterium longum) groups. Probiotics were provided to rats in drinking water (10 10/ml). Gut bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were obviously lower at weeks 8 and 10, respectively, in the model group compared with the control group. Supplementation with Bifidobacterium significantly attenuated hepatic fat accumulation (0.10 ± 0.03 g/g liver tissue) compared with the model group (0.16 ± 0.03 g/g liver tissue). However, there was no improvement in intestinal permeability in either the Lactobacillus or the Bifidobacterium group compared with the model group. In all 40 rats, the hepatic total lipid content was negatively correlated with gut Lactobacillus ( r = −0.623, p = 0.004) and Bifidobacterium ( r = −0.591, p = 0.008). Oral supplementation with probiotics attenuates hepatic fat accumulation. Further, Bifidobacterium longum is superior in terms of attenuating liver fat accumulation than is Lactobacillus acidophilus.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Product differentiation by analysis of DNA melting curves during the polymerase chain reaction.

          A microvolume fluorometer integrated with a thermal cycler was used to acquire DNA melting curves during polymerase chain reaction by fluorescence monitoring of the double-stranded DNA specific dye SYBR Green I. Plotting fluorescence as a function of temperature as the thermal cycler heats through the dissociation temperature of the product gives a DNA melting curve. The shape and position of this DNA melting curve are functions of the GC/AT ratio, length, and sequence and can be used to differentiate amplification products separated by less than 2 degrees C in melting temperature. Desired products can be distinguished from undesirable products, in many cases eliminating the need for gel electrophoresis. Analysis of melting curves can extend the dynamic range of initial template quantification when amplification is monitored with double-stranded DNA specific dyes. Complete amplification and analysis of products can be performed in less than 15 min.
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            Probiotics and antibodies to TNF inhibit inflammatory activity and improve nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

            Ob/ob mice, a model for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), develop intestinal bacterial overgrowth and overexpress tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). In animal models for alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD), decontaminating the intestine or inhibiting TNF-alpha improves AFLD. Because AFLD and NAFLD may have a similar pathogenesis, treatment with a probiotic (to modify the intestinal flora) or anti-TNF antibodies (to inhibit TNF-alpha activity) may improve NAFLD in ob/ob mice. To evaluate this hypothesis, 48 ob/ob mice were given either a high-fat diet alone (ob/ob controls) or the same diet + VSL#3 probiotic or anti-TNF antibodies for 4 weeks. Twelve lean littermates fed a high-fat diet served as controls. Treatment with VSL#3 or anti-TNF antibodies improved liver histology, reduced hepatic total fatty acid content, and decreased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. These benefits were associated with decreased hepatic expression of TNF-alpha messenger RNA (mRNA) in mice treated with anti-TNF antibodies but not in mice treated with VSL#3. Nevertheless, both treatments reduced activity of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), a TNF-regulated kinase that promotes insulin resistance, and decreased the DNA binding activity of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), the target of IKKbeta, another TNF-regulated enzyme that causes insulin resistance. Consistent with treatment-related improvements in hepatic insulin resistance, fatty acid beta-oxidation and uncoupling protein (UCP)-2 expression decreased after treatment with VSL#3 or anti-TNF antibodies. In conclusion, these results support the concept that intestinal bacteria induce endogenous signals that play a pathogenic role in hepatic insulin resistance and NAFLD and suggest novel therapies for these common conditions.
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              Fatty liver: a novel component of the metabolic syndrome.

              Although the epidemic of obesity has been accompanied by an increase in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, not all obese develop the syndrome and even lean individuals can be insulin resistant. Both lean and obese insulin resistant individuals have an excess of fat in the liver which is not attributable to alcohol or other known causes of liver disease, a condition defined as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by gastroenterologists. The fatty liver is insulin resistant. Liver fat is highly significantly and linearly correlated with all components of the metabolic syndrome independent of obesity. Overproduction of glucose, VLDL, CRP, and coagulation factors by the fatty liver could contribute to the excess risk of cardiovascular disease associated with the metabolic syndrome and NAFLD. Both of the latter conditions also increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and advanced liver disease. The reason why some deposit fat in the liver whereas others do not is poorly understood. Individuals with a fatty liver are more likely to have excess intraabdominal fat and inflammatory changes in adipose tissue. Intervention studies have shown that liver fat can be decreased by weight loss, PPARgamma agonists, and insulin therapy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Clin Biochem Nutr
                JCBN
                Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
                the Society for Free Radical Research Japan (Kyoto, Japan )
                0912-0009
                1880-5086
                January 2012
                24 August 2011
                : 50
                : 1
                : 72-77
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Clinical Nutrition, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shan Dong Middle Road, #145, Shanghai, China
                [2 ]Clinical Nutrition Center, Xin Hua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Kong Jiang Road, #1665, Shanghai, China
                Author notes
                *To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: wanyp204@ 123456yahoo.com.cn
                Article
                jcbn11-38
                10.3164/jcbn.11-38
                3246186
                22247604
                Copyright © 2012 JCBN

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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