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      Composition and Bioactivity of Essential Oil from Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck ‘Mato Peiyu’ Leaf

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          ‘Mato Peiyu’ pomelo ( Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck ‘Mato Peiyu’) leaves from pruning are currently an agricultural waste. The aim of this study was to isolate essential oils from these leaves through steam distillation (SD) and solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and to evaluate their applicability to skin care by analyzing their antimicrobial, antioxidant (diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay, β-carotene/linoleic acid assay, and nitric oxide scavenging assay), anti-inflammatory (5-lipoxygenase inhibition assay), and antityrosinase activities. The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry results indicated that the main components of ‘Mato Peiyu’ leaf essential oils were citronellal and citronellol, with a total percentage of 50.71% and 59.82% for SD and SFME, respectively. The highest bioactivity among all assays was obtained for 5-lipoxygenase inhibition, with an IC 50 value of 0.034% ( v/ v). The MIC 90 of the antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans ranged from 0.086% to 0.121% ( v/ v). Citronellal and citronellol were the main contributors, accounting for at least 54.58% of the essential oil’s bioactivity. This paper is the first to report the compositions and bioactivities of ‘Mato Peiyu’ leaf essential oil, and the results imply that the pomelo leaf essential oil may be applied in skin care.

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            This review focuses on the production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and its regulation under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. NO is an important biological mediator in the living organism that is synthesized from L-arginine using NADPH and molecular oxygen. However, the overproduction of NO which is catalyzed by iNOS, a soluble enzyme and active in its dimeric form, is cytotoxic. Immunostimulating cytokines or bacterial pathogens activate iNOS and generate high concentrations of NO through the activation of inducible nuclear factors, including NFkB. iNOS activation is regulated mainly at the transcriptional level, but also at posttranscriptional, translational and postranslational levels through effects on protein stability, dimerization, phosphorylation, cofactor binding and availability of oxygen and L-arginine as substrates. The prevention of the overproduction of NO in the living organism through control of regulatory pathways may assist in the treatment of high NO-mediated disorders without changing physiological levels of NO. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.
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              In the present paper, we report the antimicrobial efficacy of three monoterpenes [linalyl acetate, (+)menthol, and thymol] against the gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. For a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, the capability of these three monoterpenes to damage biomembranes was evaluated by monitoring the release, following exposure to the compounds under study, of the water-soluble fluorescent marker carboxyfluorescein from unilamellar vesicles with different lipidic compositions (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylserine [9:1], phosphatidylcholine/stearylamine [9:1], and phosphatidylglycerol/cardiolipin [9:1]). Furthermore, the interaction of the terpenes tested with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine multilamellar vesicles as model membranes was monitored by means of differential scanning calorimetry. Finally, the results were related to the relative lipophilicity and water solubility of the compounds examined. Taken together, our findings lead us to speculate that the antimicrobial effect of (+)menthol, thymol, and linalyl acetate may result, at least partially, from a perturbation of the lipid fraction of microorganism plasma membrane, resulting in alterations of membrane permeability and in leakage of intracellular materials. Besides being related to physicochemical characteristics of the drugs (such as lipophilicity and water solubility), this effect seems to be dependent on lipid composition and net surface charge of microbial membranes. Furthermore, the drugs might cross the cell membranes, penetrating into the interior of the cell and interacting with intracellular sites critical for antibacterial activity.

                Author and article information

                Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
                05 December 2017
                December 2017
                : 22
                : 12
                [1 ]Department of Cosmetic Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy & Science, Tainan 71710, Taiwan; lin820417@ 123456gmail.com (C.-D.L.); meiying@ 123456mail.cnu.edu.tw (M.-Y.W.); weilin@ 123456mail.cnu.edu.tw (W.-C.L.)
                [2 ]School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Science Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia; kehai736@ 123456gmail.com
                [3 ]Department of Chemical Science, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan; kuan@ 123456getech.com.tw
                [4 ]Department of Pharmacy, Xiamen Medical University, Xiamen 361023, China; zyn@ 123456xmmc.edu.cn (Y.-N.Z.); wyy@ 123456xmmc.edu.cn (Y.-Y.W.)
                [5 ]Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Genuine Medicinal Materials Bio-Engineering, Xiamen 361023, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: meilints@ 123456mail.cnu.edu.tw ; Tel.: +886-6-266-4911 (ext. 2411)
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).



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