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      The 9–11 November 2013 Explosive Cyclone over the Japan Sea-Okhotsk Sea: Observations and WRF Modeling Analyses

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          During the period from 9 to 11 November 2013, an explosive cyclone (EC) occurred over the Japan Sea-Okhotsk Sea. This EC initially formed around 18 UTC 9 November over the Japan Sea and developed over the Okhotsk Sea when moving northeastward. It had a minimum sea level pressure of 959.0 hPa, a significant deepening rate of central pressure of 2.9 Bergeron, and a maximum instantaneous wind speed of 42.7 m s −1. This paper aims to investigate the conditions that contributed to the rapid development of this low-pressure system through analyses of both observations and the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) modeling results. The evolutionary processes of this EC were examined by using Final Analyses (FNL) data, Multi-Functional Transport Satellites-1R (MTSAT-1R) data, upper observation data and surface observation data. WRF-3.5 modeling results were also used to examine the development mechanism of this EC. It is shown that the interaction between upper-level and low-level potential vorticity seemed to be very essential to the rapid development of this EC.

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          Author and article information

          Journal of Ocean University of China
          Science Press and Springer (China )
          02 September 2020
          01 October 2020
          : 19
          : 5
          : 989-1004
          1Department of Marine Meteorology, Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction and Climate Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Physical Oceanography, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China
          2Division of Oceanic Dynamics and Climate, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266100, China
          3Qingdao Hatran Ocean Intelligence Technology Company Limited, Qingdao 266404, China
          Author notes
          *Corresponding author: FU Gang, Tel: 0086-532-66781920, E-mail: fugang@
          Copyright © Ocean University of China, Science Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2020.

          The copyright to this article, including any graphic elements therein (e.g. illustrations, charts, moving images), is hereby assigned for good and valuable consideration to the editorial office of Journal of Ocean University of China, Science Press and Springer effective if and when the article is accepted for publication and to the extent assignable if assignability is restricted for by applicable law or regulations (e.g. for U.S. government or crown employees).

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