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      Transformational and Transactional Leadership: A Meta-Analytic Test of Their Relative Validity.

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      Journal of Applied Psychology
      American Psychological Association (APA)

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          Abstract

          This study provided a comprehensive examination of the full range of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership. Results (based on 626 correlations from 87 sources) revealed an overall validity of .44 for transformational leadership, and this validity generalized over longitudinal and multisource designs. Contingent reward (.39) and laissez-faire (-.37) leadership had the next highest overall relations; management by exception (active and passive) was inconsistently related to the criteria. Surprisingly, there were several criteria for which contingent reward leadership had stronger relations than did transformational leadership. Furthermore, transformational leadership was strongly correlated with contingent reward (.80) and laissez-faire (-.65) leadership. Transformational and contingent reward leadership generally predicted criteria controlling for the other leadership dimensions, although transformational leadership failed to predict leader job performance. (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved

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          Most cited references77

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          Re-examining the components of transformational and transactional leadership using the Multifactor Leadership

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            Two Decades of Research and Development in Transformational Leadership

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              Transformational leadership, transactional leadership, locus of control, and support for innovation: Key predictors of consolidated-business-unit performance.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Applied Psychology
                Journal of Applied Psychology
                American Psychological Association (APA)
                1939-1854
                0021-9010
                2004
                2004
                : 89
                : 5
                : 755-768
                Article
                10.1037/0021-9010.89.5.755
                15506858
                626033d5-207f-4ebf-ab97-766620fe287f
                © 2004

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