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      Forgotten fungi—the gut mycobiome in human health and disease

      , , ,
      FEMS Microbiology Reviews
      Oxford University Press (OUP)

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          Error-correcting barcoded primers for pyrosequencing hundreds of samples in multiplex.

          We constructed error-correcting DNA barcodes that allow one run of a massively parallel pyrosequencer to process up to 1,544 samples simultaneously. Using these barcodes we processed bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences representing microbial communities in 286 environmental samples, corrected 92% of sample assignment errors, and thus characterized nearly as many 16S rRNA genes as have been sequenced to date by Sanger sequencing.
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            Nonfilamentous C. albicans mutants are avirulent.

            Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae switch from a yeast to a filamentous form. In Saccharomyces, this switch is controlled by two regulatory proteins, Ste12p and Phd1p. Single-mutant strains, ste12/ste12 or phd1/phd1, are partially defective, whereas the ste12/ste12 phd1/phd1 double mutant is completely defective in filamentous growth and is noninvasive. The equivalent cph1/cph1 efg1/efg1 double mutant in Candida (Cph1p is the Ste12p homolog and Efg1p is the Phd1p homolog) is also defective in filamentous growth, unable to form hyphae or pseudohyphae in response to many stimuli, including serum or macrophages. This Candida cph1/cph1 efg1/efg1 double mutant, locked in the yeast form, is avirulent in a mouse model.
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              Interactions between commensal fungi and the C-type lectin receptor Dectin-1 influence colitis.

              The intestinal microflora, typically equated with bacteria, influences diseases such as obesity and inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we show that the mammalian gut contains a rich fungal community that interacts with the immune system through the innate immune receptor Dectin-1. Mice lacking Dectin-1 exhibited increased susceptibility to chemically induced colitis, which was the result of altered responses to indigenous fungi. In humans, we identified a polymorphism in the gene for Dectin-1 (CLEC7A) that is strongly linked to a severe form of ulcerative colitis. Together, our findings reveal a eukaryotic fungal community in the gut (the "mycobiome") that coexists with bacteria and substantially expands the repertoire of organisms interacting with the intestinal immune system to influence health and disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                FEMS Microbiology Reviews
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                1574-6976
                April 18 2017
                April 18 2017
                : 41
                : 4
                : 479-511
                Article
                10.1093/femsre/fuw047
                626708fd-cc5b-46de-94d7-3a63d69c7a2f
                © 2017

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