+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Fluency, prediction and motivation: how processing dynamics, expectations and epistemic goals shape aesthetic judgements


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          What psychological mechanisms underlie aesthetic judgements? An influential account known as the Hedonic Marking of Fluency, later developed into a Processing Fluency Theory of Aesthetic Pleasure, posits that ease of processing elicits positive feelings and thus enhances stimulus evaluations. However, the theory faces empirical and conceptual challenges. In this paper, we extend it by integrating insights from predictive processing frameworks (PPF) and the epistemic motivation model (EMM). We propose four extensions. First, fluency of a stimulus depends on perceivers' expectations—their internal model of the world. Second, perceivers also form expectations about fluency itself and thus can experience surprising fluency. These expectations can come from the individual's history, their current task and their environment. Third, perceivers can value fluency but also disfluency, reflecting their non-directional epistemic goals. Fourth, perceivers also have directional epistemic goals, preferring specific conclusions or belief content. Consequently, affective reactions depend on whether the stimulus satisfies those goals. These directional epistemic goals may override concerns about fluency or change the value of fluency associated with specific content. We review supporting evidence and introduce novel predictions. By integrating insights from PPF and EMM, our framework can better capture established fluency effects and highlights their limitations and extensions.

          This article is part of the theme issue ‘Art, aesthetics and predictive processing: theoretical and empirical perspectives’.

          Related collections

          Most cited references113

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          The free-energy principle: a unified brain theory?

          A free-energy principle has been proposed recently that accounts for action, perception and learning. This Review looks at some key brain theories in the biological (for example, neural Darwinism) and physical (for example, information theory and optimal control theory) sciences from the free-energy perspective. Crucially, one key theme runs through each of these theories - optimization. Furthermore, if we look closely at what is optimized, the same quantity keeps emerging, namely value (expected reward, expected utility) or its complement, surprise (prediction error, expected cost). This is the quantity that is optimized under the free-energy principle, which suggests that several global brain theories might be unified within a free-energy framework.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Social influence: compliance and conformity.

            This review covers recent developments in the social influence literature, focusing primarily on compliance and conformity research published between 1997 and 2002. The principles and processes underlying a target's susceptibility to outside influences are considered in light of three goals fundamental to rewarding human functioning. Specifically, targets are motivated to form accurate perceptions of reality and react accordingly, to develop and preserve meaningful social relationships, and to maintain a favorable self-concept. Consistent with the current movement in compliance and conformity research, this review emphasizes the ways in which these goals interact with external forces to engender social influence processes that are subtle, indirect, and outside of awareness.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found



                Author and article information

                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
                Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
                Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
                The Royal Society
                January 29, 2024
                December 18, 2023
                December 18, 2023
                : 379
                : 1895 , Theme issue ‘Art, aesthetics and predictive processing: theoretical and empirical perspectives’ organized and edited by Jacopo Frascaroli, Helmut Leder, Elvira Brattico and Sander Van de Cruys
                : 20230326
                [ 1 ] Department of Psychology, University of California, , 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0109, USA
                [ 2 ] Jagiellonian University, Institute of Psychology, , Ingardena 6, 30-060 Krakow, Poland
                [ 3 ] SWPS University, , Chodakowska 19/31, 03-815 Warsaw, Poland
                Author notes
                Author information
                © 2023 The Authors.

                Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited.

                : September 4, 2023
                : November 21, 2023
                Funded by: UCSD Academic Senate Grant to Piotr Winkielman;
                Award ID: 2030215
                Funded by: National Science Center Poland Grant to Katarzyna Jasko;
                Award ID: 2015/19/B/HS6/01253
                Part V: Responses and Critical Perspectives
                Review Articles
                Custom metadata
                January 29, 2024

                Philosophy of science
                fluency,aesthetics,evaluation,predictive processing framework,epistemic motivation model


                Comment on this article