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      Fluency, prediction and motivation: how processing dynamics, expectations and epistemic goals shape aesthetic judgements

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          Abstract

          What psychological mechanisms underlie aesthetic judgements? An influential account known as the Hedonic Marking of Fluency, later developed into a Processing Fluency Theory of Aesthetic Pleasure, posits that ease of processing elicits positive feelings and thus enhances stimulus evaluations. However, the theory faces empirical and conceptual challenges. In this paper, we extend it by integrating insights from predictive processing frameworks (PPF) and the epistemic motivation model (EMM). We propose four extensions. First, fluency of a stimulus depends on perceivers' expectations—their internal model of the world. Second, perceivers also form expectations about fluency itself and thus can experience surprising fluency. These expectations can come from the individual's history, their current task and their environment. Third, perceivers can value fluency but also disfluency, reflecting their non-directional epistemic goals. Fourth, perceivers also have directional epistemic goals, preferring specific conclusions or belief content. Consequently, affective reactions depend on whether the stimulus satisfies those goals. These directional epistemic goals may override concerns about fluency or change the value of fluency associated with specific content. We review supporting evidence and introduce novel predictions. By integrating insights from PPF and EMM, our framework can better capture established fluency effects and highlights their limitations and extensions.

          This article is part of the theme issue ‘Art, aesthetics and predictive processing: theoretical and empirical perspectives’.

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            Social influence: compliance and conformity.

            This review covers recent developments in the social influence literature, focusing primarily on compliance and conformity research published between 1997 and 2002. The principles and processes underlying a target's susceptibility to outside influences are considered in light of three goals fundamental to rewarding human functioning. Specifically, targets are motivated to form accurate perceptions of reality and react accordingly, to develop and preserve meaningful social relationships, and to maintain a favorable self-concept. Consistent with the current movement in compliance and conformity research, this review emphasizes the ways in which these goals interact with external forces to engender social influence processes that are subtle, indirect, and outside of awareness.
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              ATTITUDINAL EFFECTS OF MERE EXPOSURE.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Journal
                Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
                Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
                RSTB
                royptb
                Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
                The Royal Society
                0962-8436
                1471-2970
                January 29, 2024
                December 18, 2023
                December 18, 2023
                : 379
                : 1895 , Theme issue ‘Art, aesthetics and predictive processing: theoretical and empirical perspectives’ organized and edited by Jacopo Frascaroli, Helmut Leder, Elvira Brattico and Sander Van de Cruys
                : 20230326
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Department of Psychology, University of California, , 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0109, USA
                [ 2 ] Jagiellonian University, Institute of Psychology, , Ingardena 6, 30-060 Krakow, Poland
                [ 3 ] SWPS University, , Chodakowska 19/31, 03-815 Warsaw, Poland
                Author notes
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2330-1802
                Article
                rstb20230326
                10.1098/rstb.2023.0326
                10725759
                38104614
                6278681d-1d5c-4be0-a8d8-90a92109b000
                © 2023 The Authors.

                Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : September 4, 2023
                : November 21, 2023
                Funding
                Funded by: UCSD Academic Senate Grant to Piotr Winkielman;
                Award ID: 2030215
                Funded by: National Science Center Poland Grant to Katarzyna Jasko;
                Award ID: 2015/19/B/HS6/01253
                Categories
                1001
                42
                Part V: Responses and Critical Perspectives
                Review Articles
                Custom metadata
                January 29, 2024

                Philosophy of science
                fluency,aesthetics,evaluation,predictive processing framework,epistemic motivation model

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