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      Nanotoxicity of 2D Molybdenum Disulfide, MoS 2, Nanosheets on Beneficial Soil Bacteria, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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          Abstract

          Concerns arising from accidental and occasional releases of novel industrial nanomaterials to the environment and waterbodies are rapidly increasing as the production and utilization levels of nanomaterials increase every day. In particular, two-dimensional nanosheets are one of the most significant emerging classes of nanomaterials used or considered for use in numerous applications and devices. This study deals with the interactions between 2D molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2) nanosheets and beneficial soil bacteria. It was found that the log-reduction in the survival of Gram-positive Bacillus cereus was 2.8 (99.83%) and 4.9 (99.9988%) upon exposure to 16.0 mg/mL bulk MoS 2 (macroscale) and 2D MoS 2 nanosheets (nanoscale), respectively. For the case of Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the log-reduction values in bacterial survival were 1.9 (98.60%) and 5.4 (99.9996%) for the same concentration of bulk MoS 2 and MoS 2 nanosheets, respectively. Based on these findings, it is important to consider the potential toxicity of MoS 2 nanosheets on beneficial soil bacteria responsible for nitrate reduction and nitrogen fixation, soil formation, decomposition of dead and decayed natural materials, and transformation of toxic compounds into nontoxic compounds to adequately assess the environmental impact of 2D nanosheets and nanomaterials.

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          Most cited references81

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          Single-layer MoS2 transistors.

          Two-dimensional materials are attractive for use in next-generation nanoelectronic devices because, compared to one-dimensional materials, it is relatively easy to fabricate complex structures from them. The most widely studied two-dimensional material is graphene, both because of its rich physics and its high mobility. However, pristine graphene does not have a bandgap, a property that is essential for many applications, including transistors. Engineering a graphene bandgap increases fabrication complexity and either reduces mobilities to the level of strained silicon films or requires high voltages. Although single layers of MoS(2) have a large intrinsic bandgap of 1.8 eV (ref. 16), previously reported mobilities in the 0.5-3 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) range are too low for practical devices. Here, we use a halfnium oxide gate dielectric to demonstrate a room-temperature single-layer MoS(2) mobility of at least 200 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), similar to that of graphene nanoribbons, and demonstrate transistors with room-temperature current on/off ratios of 1 × 10(8) and ultralow standby power dissipation. Because monolayer MoS(2) has a direct bandgap, it can be used to construct interband tunnel FETs, which offer lower power consumption than classical transistors. Monolayer MoS(2) could also complement graphene in applications that require thin transparent semiconductors, such as optoelectronics and energy harvesting.
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            DLS and zeta potential - What they are and what they are not?

            Adequate characterization of NPs (nanoparticles) is of paramount importance to develop well defined nanoformulations of therapeutic relevance. Determination of particle size and surface charge of NPs are indispensable for proper characterization of NPs. DLS (dynamic light scattering) and ZP (zeta potential) measurements have gained popularity as simple, easy and reproducible tools to ascertain particle size and surface charge. Unfortunately, on practical grounds plenty of challenges exist regarding these two techniques including inadequate understanding of the operating principles and dealing with critical issues like sample preparation and interpretation of the data. As both DLS and ZP have emerged from the realms of physical colloid chemistry - it is difficult for researchers engaged in nanomedicine research to master these two techniques. Additionally, there is little literature available in drug delivery research which offers a simple, concise account on these techniques. This review tries to address this issue while providing the fundamental principles of these techniques, summarizing the core mathematical principles and offering practical guidelines on tackling commonly encountered problems while running DLS and ZP measurements. Finally, the review tries to analyze the relevance of these two techniques from translatory perspective.
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              A global atlas of the dominant bacteria found in soil

              The immense diversity of soil bacterial communities has stymied efforts to characterize individual taxa and document their global distributions. We analyzed soils from 237 locations across six continents and found that only 2% of bacterial phylotypes (~500 phylotypes) consistently accounted for almost half of the soil bacterial communities worldwide. Despite the overwhelming diversity of bacterial communities, relatively few bacterial taxa are abundant in soils globally. We clustered these dominant taxa into ecological groups to build the first global atlas of soil bacterial taxa. Our study narrows down the immense number of bacterial taxa to a "most wanted" list that will be fruitful targets for genomic and cultivation-based efforts aimed at improving our understanding of soil microbes and their contributions to ecosystem functioning.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Nanomaterials (Basel)
                Nanomaterials (Basel)
                nanomaterials
                Nanomaterials
                MDPI
                2079-4991
                31 May 2021
                June 2021
                : 11
                : 6
                : 1453
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA; bsy7790@ 123456tamu.edu (M.B.); liushuhao1993@ 123456tamu.edu (S.L.); nirup.nagabandi@ 123456essentium.com (N.N.); yagmur-ravli@ 123456tamu.edu (Y.Y.); wdeflorio@ 123456tamu.edu (W.D.)
                [2 ]Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Dankook University, 152 Jukjeon-ro, Suji-gu, Yongin-si 16890, Gyeonggi-do, Korea; junkyunoh@ 123456dankook.ac.kr
                [3 ]Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA; lcisnero@ 123456tamu.edu
                [4 ]Department of Horticultural Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
                [5 ]Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: ethanscholar@ 123456tamu.edu
                [†]

                Both authors contributed equally to this work.

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7204-1325
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8199-7628
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8024-4069
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0580-5943
                Article
                nanomaterials-11-01453
                10.3390/nano11061453
                8229097
                34072663
                628d7954-01a5-4349-b1e9-85a2a30b8b87
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 30 March 2021
                : 26 May 2021
                Categories
                Article

                mos2 nanomaterials,2d nanosheets,nanotoxicity,soil bacteria

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