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      Implantable Devices: Issues and Challenges

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      Electronics

      MDPI AG

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          Most cited references 123

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          The dielectric properties of biological tissues: II. Measurements in the frequency range 10 Hz to 20 GHz.

          Three experimental techniques based on automatic swept-frequency network and impedance analysers were used to measure the dielectric properties of tissue in the frequency range 10 Hz to 20 GHz. The technique used in conjunction with the impedance analyser is described. Results are given for a number of human and animal tissues, at body temperature, across the frequency range, demonstrating that good agreement was achieved between measurements using the three pieces of equipment. Moreover, the measured values fall well within the body of corresponding literature data.
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            The dielectric properties of biological tissues: I. Literature survey.

            The dielectric properties of tissues have been extracted from the literature of the past five decades and presented in a graphical format. The purpose is to assess the current state of knowledge, expose the gaps there are and provide a basis for the evaluation and analysis of corresponding data from an on-going measurement programme.
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              Response of brain tissue to chronically implanted neural electrodes.

              Chronically implanted recording electrode arrays linked to prosthetics have the potential to make positive impacts on patients suffering from full or partial paralysis. Such arrays are implanted into the patient's cortical tissue and record extracellular potentials from nearby neurons, allowing the information encoded by the neuronal discharges to control external devices. While such systems perform well during acute recordings, they often fail to function reliably in clinically relevant chronic settings. Available evidence suggests that a major failure mode of electrode arrays is the brain tissue reaction against these implants, making the biocompatibility of implanted electrodes a primary concern in device design. This review presents the biological components and time course of the acute and chronic tissue reaction in brain tissue, analyses the brain tissue response of current electrode systems, and comments on the various material science and bioactive strategies undertaken by electrode designers to enhance electrode performance.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ELECGJ
                Electronics
                Electronics
                MDPI AG
                2079-9292
                December 2013
                December 21 2012
                : 2
                : 4
                : 1-34
                Article
                10.3390/electronics2010001
                © 2012

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://www.mdpi.com/2079-9292/2/1/1

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