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      Effect of food on the pharmacokinetic characteristics of a single oral dose of LCB01-0371, a novel oxazolidinone antibiotic

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          Abstract

          Background

          LCB01-0371 is a novel oxazolidinone antibiotic that blocks protein production by binding to bacterial 23S ribosomes. This antibiotic is active against Gram-positive bacteria. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of LCB01-0371 and evaluate its safety profile.

          Subjects and methods

          A randomized, open-label, two-way crossover study was performed in 18 healthy Korean male subjects. All subjects received a single oral 800 mg dose of LCB01-0371 in each period under fed or fasting condition with a 7-day washout in between. The fed condition was defined as consumption of a meal of 800–1,000 kcal containinĝ50% of fat content. Serial blood samples were collected over 24 h after dosing, and the PK parameters were calculated by noncompartment analysis. All available data of the subjects who received LCB01-0371 at least once were included in the safety data summaries.

          Results

          In the fed condition, both the maximum plasma concentration ( C max) and the total systemic exposure (area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time zero to the last observed time point [AUC last]) decreased by ~33% and 10%, respectively. The time to reach C max was delayed by ~1.25 h in the fed condition, whereas the mean elimination half-life remained similar in both conditions. In the fed/fasting condition, the geometric mean ratios and 90% CI of the C max and AUC last were 0.666 (0.470–0.945) and 0.897 (0.761–1.057), respectively. There were no drug-related adverse events (AEs) or serious AEs.

          Conclusion

          Although the T max after a single oral 800 mg dose of LCB01-0371 was slightly delayed under the fed condition compared to the fasting condition, the total systemic exposure was similar under both conditions. Therefore, LCB01-0371 could be administered regardless of food intake.

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          Most cited references 17

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          A review of the influence of treatment strategies on antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes.

          Antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in the aquatic environment have become an emerging contaminant issue, which has implications for human and ecological health. This review begins with an introduction to the occurrence of ARB and ARG in different environmental systems such as natural environments and drinking water resources. For example, ARG or ARB with resistance to ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, quinolone, vancomycin, or tetracycline (e.g., tet(A), tet(B), tet(C), tet(G), tet(O), tet(M), tet(W), sul I, and sul II) have been detected in the environment. The development of resistance may be intrinsic, may be acquired through spontaneous mutations (de novo), or may occur due to horizontal gene transfer from donor bacteria, phages, or free DNA to recipient bacteria. An overview is also provided of the current knowledge regarding inactivation of ARB and ARG, and the mechanism of the effects of different disinfection processes in water and wastewater (chlorination, UV irradiation, Fenton reaction, ozonation, and photocatalytic oxidation). The effects of constructed wetlands and nanotechnology on ARB and ARG are also summarized.
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            In vivo pharmacodynamics of a new oxazolidinone (linezolid).

            Linezolid is a new oxazolidinone with activity against gram-positive cocci. We determined the in vivo activity of linezolid against four strains of Staphylococcus aureus (two methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA] strains and two methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains) and one penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae (PSSP) strain, two penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae strains, and five penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae strains. The mice had 10(6.3) to 10(7.7) CFU/thigh before therapy and were then treated for 24 h with 5 to 1,280 mg of linezolid/kg divided into 1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 doses. The killing activities after 4 h of therapy ranged from 2.4 to 5.0 log(10) CFU/thigh against S. pneumoniae and 1.35 to 2.2 log(10) CFU/thigh against S. aureus. Increasing doses produced minimal concentration-dependent killing; doses of 20 and 80 mg/kg produced no in vivo postantibiotic effects (PAEs) with PSSP and modest PAEs (3.4 and 3.2 h) with MSSA. Pharmacokinetic studies at doses of 20 and 80 mg/kg by high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis exhibited peak dose values of 0.68 and 0.71 and elimination half-lives of 1.02 and 1.00 h. Linezolid MICs ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 micro g/ml for S. pneumoniae and from 1.0 to 4.0 micro g/ml for S. aureus. A sigmoid dose-response model was used to estimate the dose required to achieve a net bacteriostatic effect over 24 h. Static doses against S. pneumoniae ranged from 22.2 to 97.1 mg/kg/24 h and from 133 to 167 mg/kg/24 h for S. aureus. The 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/MIC ratio was the major parameter determining the efficacy of linezolid against PSSP (R(2) = 82% for AUC/MIC versus 57% for T>MIC and 59% for the peak level in serum/MIC [peak/MIC]). It was difficult to determine the most relevant pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameter with S. aureus, although the outcomes correlated slightly better with the 24-h AUC/MIC ratio (R(2) = 75%) than with the other parameters (T>MIC R(2) = 75% and peak/MIC R(2) = 65%). The 24-h AUC/MIC ratio required for a bacteriostatic effect with linezolid varied from 22 to 97 (mean = 48) for pneumococci and from 39 to 167 (mean = 83) for staphylococci. Based upon a pharmacokinetic goal of a 24-h AUC/MIC of 50 to 100, a dosage regimen of 600 mg given either intravenously or orally twice daily would achieve success against organisms with MICs as high as 2 to 4 micro g/ml.
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              Clinical pharmacokinetics of linezolid, a novel oxazolidinone antibacterial.

              Linezolid is the first antibacterial to be approved from the oxazolidinone class. The drug has substantial antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive organisms such as streptococci, staphylococci and enterococci, including species resistant to conventional antibacterial treatment. Linezolid is fully bioavailable following oral administration when compared with intravenous administration. Maximum plasma linezolid concentrations are usually achieved between 1 and 2 hours after oral administration. Food slightly decreases the rate, but not the extent, of absorption. The distribution of linezolid is approximately equivalent to total body water, and there is low protein binding (31%) to serum albumin. The elimination half-life of linezolid is 5-7 hours, and twice-daily administration of 400-600 mg provides steady-state concentrations in the therapeutic range. Linezolid is mainly cleared by non-renal clearance to two metabolites and renal clearance of the parent compound. Approximately 50% of an administered dose appears in the urine as the two major metabolites, and approximately 35% appears as parent drug. A small degree of nonlinearity has been observed, with a 30% decrease in clearance after a 5-fold increase in dose. The nonlinearity is not relevant over the therapeutic dosage range. Plasma linezolid concentrations in elderly patients, patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment or mild to severe renal impairment are similar to those achieved in young or healthy volunteers. Higher concentrations are observed in women as compared with men, but the difference is not sufficient to warrant an adjustment in dosage. In patients with severe renal impairment requiring haemodialysis, the exposure to the two primary metabolites was 7 to 8-fold higher than in patients with normal renal function. Therefore, linezolid should be used with caution in patients with severe renal insufficiency. A higher clearance of linezolid was found in children as compared with adults, and therefore higher daily dosages per kg bodyweight are required in children. There is no pharmacokinetic interaction when linezolid is coadministered with aztreonam, gentamicin or warfarin. Linezolid is a mild, reversible, inhibitor of monoamine oxidases A and B. Coadministration of linezolid with the adrenergic agents pseudoephedrine and phenylpropanolamine resulted in increases in blood pressure relative to these agents alone or to placebo. The degree of the change in blood pressure was within that associated with normal daily activities. No interaction was observed when linezolid was coadministered with the serotonergic agent dextromethorphan.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2018
                11 June 2018
                : 12
                : 1707-1714
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul
                [2 ]LegoChem Biosciences, Inc., Daejeon
                [3 ]Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jae-Yong Chung, Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Bundang Hospital, 82, Gumi-ro, 173 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 13620, Republic of Korea, Tel +82 31 787 3955, Fax +82 31 787 4045, Email jychung@ 123456snubh.org
                Article
                dddt-12-1707
                10.2147/DDDT.S155657
                6001845
                © 2018 Sunwoo et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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