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      Panoramic nailfold capillaroscopy: a new reading method and normal range.

      Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
      Adolescent, Adult, Age Factors, Aged, Angiography, instrumentation, methods, Capillaries, cytology, physiology, ultrastructure, Child, Ethnic Groups, Female, Humans, Male, Microcirculation, Microscopy, Middle Aged, Nails, blood supply, Photomicrography, Reference Values, Sex Factors

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          Current interpretation of nailfold capillaroscopy is largely based on qualitative and subjective parameters. These parameters make the accurate assessment of the extent of the nailfold microangiopathy difficult. The authors present a comprehensive method in which several quantitative or semiquantitative parameters are used to assess the main microangiopathic features, such as microhemorrhage, plexus visibility, devascularization, and morphologic anomalies of the end row loops. The method is checked for reproducibility and applied to a sample of 800 healthy people to establish the normal range. The influences of extrinsic variables, such as gender, ethnicity, age, and local nailfold conditions are also included.

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