+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Glycosylation Is a Major Regulator of Phenylpropanoid Availability and Biological Activity in Plants


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          The phenylpropanoid pathway in plants is responsible for the biosynthesis of a huge amount of secondary metabolites derived from phenylalanine and tyrosine. Both flavonoids and lignins are synthesized at the end of this very diverse metabolic pathway, as well as many intermediate molecules whose precise biological functions remain largely unknown. The diversity of these molecules can be further increased under the action of UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) leading to the production of glycosylated hydroxycinnamates and related aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Glycosylation can change phenylpropanoid solubility, stability and toxic potential, as well as influencing compartmentalization and biological activity. (De)-glycosylation therefore represents an extremely important regulation point in phenylpropanoid homeostasis. In this article we review recent knowledge on the enzymes involved in regulating phenylpropanoid glycosylation status and availability in different subcellular compartments. We also examine the potential link between monolignol glycosylation and lignification by exploring co-expression of lignin biosynthesis genes and phenolic (de)glycosylation genes. Of the different biological roles linked with their particular chemical properties, phenylpropanoids are often correlated with the plant's stress management strategies that are also regulated by glycosylation. UGTs can for instance influence the resistance of plants during infection by microorganisms and be involved in the mechanisms related to environmental changes. The impact of flavonoid glycosylation on the color of flowers, leaves, seeds and fruits will also be discussed. Altogether this paper underlies the fact that glycosylation and deglycosylation are powerful mechanisms allowing plants to regulate phenylpropanoid localisation, availability and biological activity.

          Related collections

          Most cited references164

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Plant phenolics: recent advances on their biosynthesis, genetics, and ecophysiology.

          Land-adapted plants appeared between about 480 and 360 million years ago in the mid-Palaeozoic era, originating from charophycean green algae. The successful adaptation to land of these prototypes of amphibious plants - when they emerged from an aquatic environment onto the land - was achieved largely by massive formation of "phenolic UV light screens". In the course of evolution, plants have developed the ability to produce an enormous number of phenolic secondary metabolites, which are not required in the primary processes of growth and development but are of vital importance for their interaction with the environment, for their reproductive strategy and for their defense mechanisms. From a biosynthetic point of view, beside methylation catalyzed by O-methyltransferases, acylation and glycosylation of secondary metabolites, including phenylpropanoids and various derived phenolic compounds, are fundamental chemical modifications. Such modified metabolites have altered polarity, volatility, chemical stability in cells but also in solution, ability for interaction with other compounds (co-pigmentation) and biological activity. The control of the production of plant phenolics involves a matrix of potentially overlapping regulatory signals. These include developmental signals, such as during lignification of new growth or the production of anthocyanins during fruit and flower development, and environmental signals for protection against abiotic and biotic stresses. For some of the key compounds, such as the flavonoids, there is now an excellent understanding of the nature of those signals and how the signal transduction pathway connects through to the activation of the phenolic biosynthetic genes. Within the plant environment, different microorganisms can coexist that can establish various interactions with the host plant and that are often the basis for the synthesis of specific phenolic metabolites in response to these interactions. In the rhizosphere, increasing evidence suggests that root specific chemicals (exudates) might initiate and manipulate biological and physical interactions between roots and soil organisms. These interactions include signal traffic between roots of competing plants, roots and soil microbes, and one-way signals that relate the nature of chemical and physical soil properties to the roots. Plant phenolics can also modulate essential physiological processes such as transcriptional regulation and signal transduction. Some interesting effects of plant phenolics are also the ones associated with the growth hormone auxin. An additional role for flavonoids in functional pollen development has been observed. Finally, anthocyanins represent a class of flavonoids that provide the orange, red and blue/purple colors to many plant tissues. According to the coevolution theory, red is a signal of the status of the tree to insects that migrate to (or move among) the trees in autumn. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Functional genomics by integrated analysis of metabolome and transcriptome of Arabidopsis plants over-expressing an MYB transcription factor.

            The integration of metabolomics and transcriptomics can provide precise information on gene-to-metabolite networks for identifying the function of unknown genes unless there has been a post-transcriptional modification. Here, we report a comprehensive analysis of the metabolome and transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana over-expressing the PAP1 gene encoding an MYB transcription factor, for the identification of novel gene functions involved in flavonoid biosynthesis. For metabolome analysis, we performed flavonoid-targeted analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and non-targeted analysis by Fourier-transform ion-cyclotron mass spectrometry with an ultrahigh-resolution capacity. This combined analysis revealed the specific accumulation of cyanidin and quercetin derivatives, and identified eight novel anthocyanins from an array of putative 1800 metabolites in PAP1 over-expressing plants. The transcriptome analysis of 22,810 genes on a DNA microarray revealed the induction of 38 genes by ectopic PAP1 over-expression. In addition to well-known genes involved in anthocyanin production, several genes with unidentified functions or annotated with putative functions, encoding putative glycosyltransferase, acyltransferase, glutathione S-transferase, sugar transporters and transcription factors, were induced by PAP1. Two putative glycosyltransferase genes (At5g17050 and At4g14090) induced by PAP1 expression were confirmed to encode flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase and anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase, respectively, from the enzymatic activity of their recombinant proteins in vitro and results of the analysis of anthocyanins in the respective T-DNA-inserted mutants. The functional genomics approach through the integration of metabolomics and transcriptomics presented here provides an innovative means of identifying novel gene functions involved in plant metabolism.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              Resistance gene-dependent plant defense responses.


                Author and article information

                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                26 May 2016
                : 7
                : 735
                Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 8576-Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, Université de Lille Lille, France
                Author notes

                Edited by: Jacqueline Grima-Pettenati, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France

                Reviewed by: Thomas Vogt, Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Germany; Yves Barrière, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, France

                *Correspondence: Godfrey Neutelings godfrey.neutelings@ 123456univ-lille1.fr

                This article was submitted to Plant Metabolism and Chemodiversity, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                Copyright © 2016 Le Roy, Huss, Creach, Hawkins and Neutelings.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 03 April 2016
                : 12 May 2016
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 188, Pages: 19, Words: 16329
                Plant Science

                Plant science & Botany


                Comment on this article