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      Differential Associations of Traditional and Non-Traditional Risk Factors with Carotid Intima-Media Thickening and Plaque in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

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          Abstract

          Background: This study sought to examine the associations of traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors with carotid intima-media thickening and plaque in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in 147 PD patients with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque assessed by B-mode ultrasonography and fasting blood collected for biochemical measurements. Results: On univariate analysis, age, smoking history, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin, fetuin-A, lipoprotein(a) and diastolic blood pressure were associated with carotid IMT while age, smoking history, diabetes, CRP and diastolic blood pressure were associated with carotid plaque. Using multivariate analysis, elevated CRP (p = 0.015) and serum calcium (p = 0.022) were associated with carotid plaque but not with IMT. CRP and serum calcium were synergistically associated with carotid plaque in that those with CRP > median and serum calcium > median showed the highest prevalence of carotid plaque than either factor alone (p = 0.003). Conclusions: An elevated CRP appeared to be a better biomarker of presence of carotid plaque than intima-media thickening. Furthermore, CRP and serum calcium showed synergistic association with presence of carotid plaque. However, our study was limited by the cross-sectional design and baseline laboratory abnormalities were inevitably confounded by the treatment already given, resulting in difficulty to distinguish cause and effect relationship. Nevertheless, these observations warrant further investigation as it may potentially have important implications on differentiating therapeutic strategies for reducing carotid IMT and plaque progression in PD patients.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Electron beam computed tomography in the evaluation of cardiac calcification in chronic dialysis patients.

          The purpose of this study was to assess the value of electron beam computed tomography in the detection of cardiac calcifications in coronaries and valves of dialysis patients and to determine the rate at which calcification progresses. Forty-nine chronic hemodialysis patients aged 28 to 74 years were compared with 102 non-dialysis patients aged 32 to 73 years with documented or suspected coronary artery disease, all of whom underwent coronary angiography. We used high-resolution electron beam computed tomography scanning to make 30 axial slices with a distance of 3 mm between each slice. The number of calcifications, the surface area, and the average and highest density values were measured. We calculated a quantitative coronary artery calcium score and assessed calcification of mitral and aortic valves. In dialysis patients, the measurements were repeated after 12 months. The coronary artery calcium score was from 2.5-fold to fivefold higher in the dialysis patients than in the non-dialysis patients. Hypertensive dialysis patients had higher calcium scores than non-hypertensive dialysis patients (P < 0.05). A stepwise, multiple regression analysis confirmed the importance of age and hypertension. No correlation between calcium, phosphate, or parathyroid hormone values and the coronary calcium score was identified; however, the calcium score was inversely correlated with bone mass in the dialysis patients (r = 0.47, P < 0.05). The mitral valve was calcified in 59% of dialysis patients, while the aortic valve was calcified in 55%. The coronary artery calcium score was correlated with aortic valvular, but not mitral valvular calcification. A repeat examination of the dialysis patients at an interval of 1 year showed a disturbing tendency for progression. Our data under-score the frequency and severity of coronary and valvular calcifications in dialysis patients, and illustrate the rapid progression of this calcification. Finally, they draw attention to hypertension as an important risk factor in this process.
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            Oxidized phospholipids, Lp(a) lipoprotein, and coronary artery disease.

            Lp(a) lipoprotein binds proinflammatory oxidized phospholipids. We investigated whether levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) measured with use of monoclonal antibody E06 reflect the presence and extent of obstructive coronary artery disease, defined as a stenosis of more than 50 percent of the luminal diameter. Levels of oxidized LDL and Lp(a) lipoprotein were measured in a total of 504 patients immediately before coronary angiography. Levels of oxidized LDL are reported as the oxidized phospholipid content per particle of apolipoprotein B-100 (oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio). Measurements of the oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio and Lp(a) lipoprotein levels were skewed toward lower values, and the values for the oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio correlated strongly with those for Lp(a) lipoprotein (r=0.83, P<0.001). In the entire cohort, the oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio and Lp(a) lipoprotein levels showed a strong and graded association with the presence and extent of coronary artery disease (i.e., the number of vessels with a stenosis of more than 50 percent of the luminal diameter) (P<0.001). Among patients 60 years of age or younger, those in the highest quartiles for the oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio and Lp(a) lipoprotein levels had odds ratios for coronary artery disease of 3.12 (P<0.001) and 3.64 (P<0.001), respectively, as compared with patients in the lowest quartile. The combined effect of hypercholesterolemia and being in the highest quartiles of the oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio (odds ratio, 16.8; P<0.001) and Lp(a) lipoprotein levels (odds ratio, 14.2; P<0.001) significantly increased the probability of coronary artery disease among patients 60 years of age or younger. In the entire study group, the association of the oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio with obstructive coronary artery disease was independent of all clinical and lipid measures except one, Lp(a) lipoprotein. However, among patients 60 years of age or younger, the oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio remained an independent predictor of coronary artery disease. Circulating levels of oxidized LDL are strongly associated with angiographically documented coronary artery disease, particularly in patients 60 years of age or younger. These data suggest that the atherogenicity of Lp(a) lipoprotein may be mediated in part by associated proinflammatory oxidized phospholipids. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              Morphologic findings of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in diabetics: a postmortem study.

              Coronary atherosclerotic plaque composition of diabetic subjects and localization of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and its ligands have not been extensively studied. Hearts from diabetic subjects and age, race, and sex-matched nondiabetic subjects dying suddenly were examined. Coronary arteries were dissected and lesions were evaluated for plaque burden, necrotic core size, and inflammatory infiltrate. The expression of RAGE, the RAGE-binding protein (S100-A12, EN-RAGE), and cell death (apoptosis) were also determined. Lesions from type II diabetic subjects had larger mean necrotic cores (P=0.01) and greater total and distal plaque load (P<0.001) than nondiabetic subjects. Necrotic core size correlated positively with diabetic status, independent of other risk factors. Intimal staining for macrophages, T-cells, and HLA-DR was also significantly greater in diabetic subjects (P=0.03, P=0.003, and P<0.0001), respectively. The association of increased macrophage infiltrate was independent of cholesterol levels and patient age. Expression of RAGE and EN-RAGE was significantly greater in diabetic subjects (P=0.004) and was associated with apoptotic smooth muscle cells and macrophages. In sudden coronary death, inflammation and necrotic core size play a greater role in the progression of atherosclerosis in diabetic subjects. The expression of RAGE and EN-RAGE may further compromise cell survival and promote plaque destabilization.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2007
                September 2007
                26 July 2007
                : 27
                : 5
                : 458-465
                Affiliations
                Departments of aMedicine and Therapeutics, bDiagnostic and Interventional Radiology, and cChemical Pathology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, SAR, China
                Article
                106457 Am J Nephrol 2007;27:458–465
                10.1159/000106457
                17664864
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, References: 35, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research

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