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      “Associated” or “Secondary” IgA nephropathy? An outcome analysis

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          Abstract

          Background

          Whether differences in outcome between primary (pIgAN) and secondary IgA nephropathy (sIgAN) exist is uncertain.

          Methods

          We conducted a retrospective, observational study that included all histologically diagnosed IgAN patients between 2010–2017 (N = 306), 248 with pIgAN and 58 with sIgAN. To obtain samples with similar risk of progression, sIgAN patients were grouped as liver disease and autoimmune/viral disease and propensity score matched to corresponding pIgAN samples. Univariate (Kaplan Meier) and multivariate time-dependent (Cox modelling) analyses were performed to identify predictors of the composite end-point (doubling of serum creatinine, end-stage kidney disease or death).

          Results

          Of the whole cohort, 20% had sIgAN (6% alcoholic cirrhosis, 6% autoimmune disease and 8% viral infections). sIgAN patients were older, had more comorbidities, lower proteinuria and higher haematuria, but similar distribution in MESTC lesions and eGFR as those with pIgAN. They reached the end-point in similar proportions with those with pIgAN (43 vs. 30%; p = 0.09) but their mortality was higher (19 vs. 3%; p<0.0001). Both in unmatched (HR 0.80, 95%CI 0.42–1.52; p = 0.5) and matched samples (log-rank test: liver disease-IgAN vs. pIgAN, p = 0.1; autoimmune/viral-IgAN vs. pIgAN, p = 0.3), sIgAN was not predictive for end-point. In analyses restricted only to sIgAN, those with viral infections (HR, 10.98; 95% CI, 1.12–107.41; p = 0.03) and lower eGFR (HR, 0.94; 95%CI, 0.89–0.98; p = 0.007) had a worse prognosis. Immunosuppression did not influence outcome.

          Conclusions

          The differences in MESTC score and outcome between pIgAN and sIgAN seems to be minimal, suggesting that “associated” describes better than “secondary” the relationship among the two. Immunosuppression did not to influence outcome of sIgAN.

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          Most cited references 18

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          New developments in the genetics, pathogenesis, and therapy of IgA nephropathy

          Recent years have brought notable progress in the field of IgA nephropathy. Here, we highlight important new directions and latest developments, including successful discovery of several genetic susceptibility loci, formulation of the multi-hit pathogenesis model that integrates findings from studies of galactose-deficient IgA1, anti-glycan response and immune complex-induced kidney injury, introduction of the Oxford pathology scoring system, and formalization of the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) consensus treatment guidelines. We focus on the latest genetic findings that confirm a strong contribution of inherited factors and explain some of the geo-ethnic disparities in disease susceptibility. Most IgA nephropathy susceptibility loci discovered to date encode genes involved in the maintenance of the intestinal epithelial barrier and response to mucosal pathogens. The concerted pattern of inter-population allelic differentiation across all Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) loci parallels the disease prevalence and correlates with variation in local pathogens, suggesting that multi-locus adaptation might have shaped the present-day landscape of IgA nephropathy. Importantly, the “Intestinal Immune Network for IgA Production” emerged as one of the new targets for potential therapeutic intervention. We place these findings in the context of the multi-hit pathogenesis model and existing knowledge of IgA immunobiology. Lastly, we provide our perspective on the existing treatment options, discuss areas of clinical uncertainty, and outline ongoing clinical trials and translational studies.
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            A tricontinental view of IgA nephropathy.

            The purpose of this retrospective study was to analyse patients from four centres in three continents to determine if differences in long-term outcome of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) are explained by clinical and laboratory features at presentation. The study included 711 adults with biopsy-proven IgAN from Glasgow, UK (n = 112), Helsinki, Finland (n = 204), Sydney, Australia (n = 121) and Toronto, Canada (n = 274). Data collected from time of presentation to a nephrologist were age, gender, 24-h urine protein excretion (UP(0)), mean arterial pressure (MAP(0)) and creatinine clearance (CrCl(0)). Outcomes were slope of creatinine clearance (CrCl) and renal survival. At presentation there was significant vari-ability in baseline clinical features with patients from Helsinki having the lowest median UP(0), lowest MAP(0) and highest CrCl(0), all suggesting milder disease. There was significant variability in renal survival between centres with 10-year actuarial survival of 95.7, 87.0, 63.9 and 61.6% in Helsinki, Sydney, Glasgow and Toronto, respectively (P < 0.0001; log rank). Cox proportional hazards model revealed lower age(0) and lower CrCl(0) were significant independent predictors of reduced renal survival. In addition, patients from Helsinki and Sydney but not Glasgow had significantly longer renal survival than patients from Toronto. Median slope of CrCl varied by region from -1.24 ml/min/year in Helsinki, to -3.99 ml/min/year in Toronto (Kruskal-Wallis H test P < 0.0001). By multivariate analysis older age(0), higher CrCl(0) and lower UP(0) were independently associated with slower progression. Subjects from Helsinki had a significantly slower deterioration independent of the other clinical parameters at presentation. When the 269 patients presenting with CrCl(0) <75 ml/min were analysed separately there was no independent centre effect. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that geographical variability in long-term outcome of IgAN is explained by lead-time bias and inclusion of milder cases in centres with apparent good outcome, but do not exclude the possibility that some of the variability is due to other factors such as genetics, diet or treatment.
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              Evaluation of the Oxford Classification of IgA nephropathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

              The Oxford Classification of the pathology of immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy, developed in 2009, is highly predictive of renal prognosis. It has been validated in different populations, but the results remain inconsistent. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Patients with biopsy-proven primary IgA nephropathy. Studies assessing the Oxford Classification of IgA nephropathy published between January 2009 and December 2012 were included following systematic searching of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. 4 pathologic lesions of the Oxford Classification: mesangial hypercellularity (M), endocapillary hypercellularity (E), segmental glomerulosclerosis (S), and tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis (T). Kidney failure defined as doubled serum creatinine level, 50% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate, or end-stage kidney disease. 16 retrospective cohort studies with 3,893 patients and 570 kidney failure events were included. In a multivariate model, HRs for kidney failure were 0.6 (95% CI, 0.5-0.8; P 25% tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis), respectively, without evidence of heterogeneity. Pooled results showed that E lesions were not associated with kidney failure (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.9-2.0; P = 0.1), with evidence of heterogeneity (I(2) = 54.1%; P = 0.01). Crescent (C) lesions were associated with kidney failure (HR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6-3.4; P < 0.001), with no evidence of heterogeneity (I(2) = 14.7%; P = 0.3). All studies were retrospective. This was not an individual-patient-data meta-analysis. This study suggests that M, S, T, and C lesions, but not E lesions, are associated strongly with progression to kidney failure and thus should be included in the Oxford Classification system. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: Methodology
                Role: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: Methodology
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: Supervision
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysis
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysis
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                9 August 2019
                2019
                : 14
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Nephrology Department, Fundeni Clinical Institute, Bucharest, Romania
                [2 ] Nephrology Department,”Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
                [3 ] ”Dr. Carol Davila” Teaching Hospital of Nephrology, Bucharest, Romania
                [4 ] ”Victor Babes” National Institute of Pathology, Bucharest, Romania
                International University of Health and Welfare, School of Medicine, JAPAN
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-19-14472
                10.1371/journal.pone.0221014
                6688810
                31398224
                © 2019 Obrișcă et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 4, Pages: 12
                Product
                Funding
                The authors received no specific funding for this work.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Diagnostic Medicine
                Signs and Symptoms
                Proteinuria
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
                Signs and Symptoms
                Proteinuria
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Immunology
                Immune Suppression
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Immunology
                Immune Suppression
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Diagnostic Medicine
                Signs and Symptoms
                Immune Suppression
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
                Signs and Symptoms
                Immune Suppression
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Gastroenterology and Hepatology
                Liver Diseases
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Nephrology
                Chronic Kidney Disease
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Microbiology
                Virology
                Viral Transmission and Infection
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Biochemistry
                Biomarkers
                Creatinine
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Anatomy
                Renal System
                Kidneys
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Anatomy
                Renal System
                Kidneys
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Surgical and Invasive Medical Procedures
                Biopsy
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

                Uncategorized

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