13
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      PARP1 and PARP2 stabilise replication forks at base excision repair intermediates through Fbh1-dependent Rad51 regulation

      research-article

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          PARP1 regulates the repair of DNA single-strand breaks generated directly, or during base excision repair (BER). However, the role of PARP2 in these and other repair mechanisms is unknown. Here, we report a requirement for PARP2 in stabilising replication forks that encounter BER intermediates through Fbh1-dependent regulation of Rad51. Whereas PARP2 is dispensable for tolerance of cells to SSBs or homologous recombination dysfunction, it is redundant with PARP1 in BER. Therefore, combined disruption of PARP1 and PARP2 leads to defective BER, resulting in elevated levels of replication-associated DNA damage owing to an inability to stabilise Rad51 at damaged replication forks and prevent uncontrolled DNA resection. Together, our results demonstrate how PARP1 and PARP2 regulate two independent, but intrinsically linked aspects of DNA base damage tolerance by promoting BER directly, and by stabilising replication forks that encounter BER intermediates.

          Abstract

          PARP1 has a well characterised role in DNA break repair and base excision repair, whereas the role of PARP2 is less well understood. Here, the authors show a requirement for PARP2 in stabilising replication forks that encounter base excision repair intermediates.

          Related collections

          Most cited references36

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Single-strand break repair and genetic disease.

          Hereditary defects in the repair of DNA damage are implicated in a variety of diseases, many of which are typified by neurological dysfunction and/or increased genetic instability and cancer. Of the different types of DNA damage that arise in cells, single-strand breaks (SSBs) are the most common, arising at a frequency of tens of thousands per cell per day from direct attack by intracellular metabolites and from spontaneous DNA decay. Here, the molecular mechanisms and organization of the DNA-repair pathways that remove SSBs are reviewed and the connection between defects in these pathways and hereditary neurodegenerative disease are discussed.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            A requirement for PARP-1 for the assembly or stability of XRCC1 nuclear foci at sites of oxidative DNA damage.

            The molecular role of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 in DNA repair is unclear. Here, we show that the single-strand break repair protein XRCC1 is rapidly assembled into discrete nuclear foci after oxidative DNA damage at sites of poly (ADP-ribose) synthesis. Poly (ADP-ribose) synthesis peaks during a 10 min treatment with H2O2 and the appearance of XRCC1 foci peaks shortly afterwards. Both sites of poly (ADP-ribose) and XRCC1 foci decrease to background levels during subsequent incubation in drug-free medium, consistent with the rapidity of the single-strand break repair process. The formation of XRCC1 foci at sites of poly (ADP-ribose) was greatly reduced by mutation of the XRCC1 BRCT I domain that physically interacts with PARP-1. Moreover, we failed to detect XRCC1 foci in Adprt1-/- MEFs after treatment with H2O2. These data demonstrate that PARP-1 is required for the assembly or stability of XRCC1 nuclear foci after oxidative DNA damage and suggest that the formation of these foci is mediated via interaction with poly (ADP-ribose). These results support a model in which the rapid activation of PARP-1 at sites of DNA strand breakage facilitates DNA repair by recruiting the molecular scaffold protein, XRCC1.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              PARP is activated at stalled forks to mediate Mre11-dependent replication restart and recombination.

              If replication forks are perturbed, a multifaceted response including several DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint pathways is activated to ensure faithful DNA replication. Here, we show that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) binds to and is activated by stalled replication forks that contain small gaps. PARP1 collaborates with Mre11 to promote replication fork restart after release from replication blocks, most likely by recruiting Mre11 to the replication fork to promote resection of DNA. Both PARP1 and PARP2 are required for hydroxyurea-induced homologous recombination to promote cell survival after replication blocks. Together, our data suggest that PARP1 and PARP2 detect disrupted replication forks and attract Mre11 for end processing that is required for subsequent recombination repair and restart of replication forks.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                nicholas.lakin@bioch.ox.ac.uk
                Journal
                Nat Commun
                Nat Commun
                Nature Communications
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2041-1723
                21 February 2018
                21 February 2018
                2018
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8948, GRID grid.4991.5, Department of Biochemistry, , University of Oxford, ; South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QU UK
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7486, GRID grid.6572.6, Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences, , University of Birmingham, ; Edgbaston, B15 2TT Birmingham UK
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8948, GRID grid.4991.5, Department of Oncology, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, , University of Oxford, ; John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, OX3 9DS UK
                Article
                3159
                10.1038/s41467-018-03159-2
                5821833
                29467415
                62ca5d77-1d25-41e3-a276-68d055dc8fea
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Categories
                Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Uncategorized
                Uncategorized

                Comments

                Comment on this article