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      Electrocardiographic and scintigraphic evaluation of patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism during workout

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          Abstract

          Subclinical hyperthyroidism (sHT) was found to be associated with elevated heart rate, blood pressure and increased risk of extrasystoles. However, the full clinical relevance of morphological and functional implications of sHT on the cardiovascular system is still a matter of debate. The aim of the study was to prospectively assess the influence of endogenous sHT on exercise capacity and cardiac function during workout with the use of exercise electrocardiography (ExECG) and perfusion scintigraphy. The studied group consisted of 44 consecutively recruited patients diagnosed with sHT. In all patients, ExECG, followed by post-exercise myocardial perfusion imaging, was performed. Both ExECG and scintigraphy were performed twice—in the state of sHT and after euthyroidism was restored. An average time period of exercise test was significantly longer in the state of euthyroidism than in sHT. An average oxygen consumption during exercise test was also higher after euthyroidism was achieved when compared to sHT. The end-diastolic and end-systolic volume indexes, stroke volume index and cardiac index were significantly larger in patients with sHT if compared values achieved after euthyroidism restoration. Stroke volume index was negatively correlated with TSH, and positively with free thyroid hormones values in the state of sHT, before euthyroidism was achieved. Cardiac index was positively correlated with free thyroid hormones levels. The obtained results indicate worse physical capacity in subjects with sHT and improvement of several parameters assessed during ExECG and perfusion scintiscan after therapy. Observed changes might reflect the mechanism of the deleterious effect exerted by sHT on the heart.

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          Most cited references 23

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          ACC/AHA 2002 guideline update for exercise testing: summary article: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee to Update the 1997 Exercise Testing Guidelines).

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            Prediction of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in elderly people from one low serum thyrotropin result: a 10-year cohort study.

            Low serum thyrotropin, in combination with normal concentrations of circulating thyroid hormones, is common, especially in elderly people and in individuals with a history of thyroid disease. We aimed to assess the long-term effects of subclinical hyperthyroidism on mortality. We did a population-based study of mortality in a cohort of 1191 individuals not on thyroxine or antithyroid medication. All participants were aged 60 years or older. We measured concentration of thyrotropin in serum at baseline in 1988-89. We recorded vital status on June 1, 1999, and ascertained causes of death for those who had died. We compared data for causes of death with age-specific, sex-specific, and year-specific data for England and Wales. We also compared mortality within the cohort according to initial thyrotropin measurement. During 9733 person-years of follow-up, 509 of 1191 people died, the expected number of deaths being 496 (standardised mortality ratio [SMR] 1.0, 95% CI 0.9-1.1). Mortality from all causes was significantly increased at 2 (SMR 2.1), 3 (2.1), 4 (1.7), and 5 (1.8) years after first measurement in those with low serum thyrotropin (n471). These increases were largely accounted for by significant increases in mortality due to circulatory diseases (SMR 2.1, 2.2, 1.9, 2.0, at years 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively). Increases in mortality from all causes in years 2-5 were higher in patients with low serum thyrotropin than in the rest of the cohort (hazard ratios for years 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 2.1, 2.2, 1.8, and 1.8, respectively). This result reflects an increase in mortality from circulatory diseases (hazard ratios at years 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 2.3, 2.6, 2.3, 2.3), and specifically from cardiovascular diseases (hazard ratios at years 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 3.3, 3.0, 2.3, 2.2). A single measurement of low serum thyrotropin in individuals aged 60 years or older is associated with increased mortality from all causes, and in particular mortality due to circulatory and cardiovascular diseases.
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              Hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis: management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists.

              Thyrotoxicosis has multiple etiologies, manifestations, and potential therapies. Appropriate treatment requires an accurate diagnosis and is influenced by coexisting medical conditions and patient preference. This article describes evidence-based clinical guidelines for the management of thyrotoxicosis that would be useful to generalist and subspeciality physicians and others providing care for patients with this condition. The development of these guidelines was commissioned by the American Thyroid Association in association with the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. The American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists assembled a task force of expert clinicians who authored this report. The task force examined relevant literature using a systematic PubMed search supplemented with additional published materials. An evidence-based medicine approach that incorporated the knowledge and experience of the panel was used to develop the text and a series of specific recommendations. The strength of the recommendations and the quality of evidence supporting each was rated according to the approach recommended by the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation Group. Clinical topics addressed include the initial evaluation and management of thyrotoxicosis; management of Graves' hyperthyroidism using radioactive iodine, antithyroid drugs, or surgery; management of toxic multinodular goiter or toxic adenoma using radioactive iodine or surgery; Graves' disease in children, adolescents, or pregnant patients; subclinical hyperthyroidism; hyperthyroidism in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy; and management of other miscellaneous causes of thyrotoxicosis. One hundred evidence-based recommendations were developed to aid in the care of patients with thyrotoxicosis and to share what the task force believes is current, rational, and optimal medical practice.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +48 22 6816110 , gkaminski@wim.mil.pl
                Journal
                Endocrine
                Endocrine
                Endocrine
                Springer US (New York )
                1355-008X
                1559-0100
                9 February 2016
                9 February 2016
                2016
                : 53
                : 512-519
                Affiliations
                [ ]Department of Endocrinology and Isotope Therapy, Military Institute of Medicine, Szaserów St 128, 04-141 Warsaw, Poland
                [ ]Department of Nuclear Medicine, Military Institute of Medicine, Szaserów St 128, 04-141 Warsaw, Poland
                [ ]Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 49 Przybyszewskiego St, 60-355 Poznan, Poland
                Article
                877
                10.1007/s12020-016-0877-x
                4949289
                26860516
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

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                Original Article
                Custom metadata
                © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

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