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      Morphology and secondary chemistry in species recognition of Parmelia omphalodes group – evidence from molecular data with notes on the ecological niche modelling and genetic variability of photobionts

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          Abstract

          Abstract

          To evaluate the importance of morphological and chemical characters used in the recognition of species within the Parmelia omphalodes group, we performed phylogenetic, morphological and chemical analyses of 335 specimens, of which 34 were used for molecular analyses. Phylogenetic analyses, based on ITS rDNA sequences, show that P. pinnatifida is distinct from P. omphalodes and the most important difference between those species is the development of pseudocyphellae. In P. pinnatifida , they are mostly marginal and form white rims along lobes margins, but laminal pseudocyphellae can develop in older parts of thalli and are predominantly connected with marginal pseudocyphellae. In contrast, in P. omphalodes laminal pseudocyphellae are common and are predominantly not connected to marginal pseudocyphellae. Chemical composition of secondary lichen metabolites in both analysed species is identical and therefore this feature is not diagnostic in species recognition. Few samples of P. discordans , species morphologically similar to P. omphalodes and P. pinnatifida , were also included in the analyses and they are nested within the clade of P. omphalodes , despite the different chemistry (protocetraric acid present versus salazinic acid in P. omphalodes ). All taxa of the P. omphalodes group occupy similar niches, but their potential distributions are wider than those currently known. The absence of specimens in some localities may be limited by the photobiont availability. Parmelia omphalodes and P. pinnatifida are moderately selective in photobiont choice as they form associations with at least two or three lineages of Trebouxia clade S. Parmelia pinnatifida , as well as P. discordans are associated with Trebouxia OTU S02 which seems to have a broad ecological amplitude. Other lineages of Trebouxia seem to be rarer, especially Trebouxia sp. OTU S04, which is sometimes present in P. pinnatifida . This study indicates the importance of extensive research including morphology, chemistry and analysis of molecular markers of both bionts in taxonomical studies of lichens.

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          Most cited references 79

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                MycoKeys
                MycoKeys
                11
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:C004A564-9D6A-5F9F-B058-6A3815DFE9C3
                MycoKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-4057
                1314-4049
                2019
                11 December 2019
                : 61
                : 39-74
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Plant Taxonomy and Nature Conservation, Faculty of Biology, University of Gdańsk, Wita Stwosza 59, PL-80-308, Gdańsk, Poland University of Gdańsk Gdańsk Poland
                [2 ] Department of Geobotany and Plant Ecology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Łódź, Banacha 12/16, 90-237, Łódź, Poland University of Łódź Łódź Poland
                [3 ] Department of Biodiversity Research, Global Change Research Institute AS CR, Bělidla 4a, 603 00, Brno, Czech Republic Global Change Research Institute Brno Czech Republic
                [4 ] Department of Botany and Plant Ecology, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, pl. Grunwaldzki 24a, PL-50–363, Wrocław, Poland Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences Wrocław Poland
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Emilia Ossowska ( emilia.ossowska@ 123456ug.edu.pl )

                Academic editor: T. Lumbsch

                Article
                38175
                10.3897/mycokeys.61.38175
                6920222
                Emilia Ossowska, Beata Guzow-Krzemińska, Marta Kolanowska, Katarzyna Szczepańska, Martin Kukwa

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funding
                Ministry of Science and Higher Education, project no. 2012/07/N/NZ8/00061 BW/538-L150-B257-16 from University of Gdansk
                Categories
                Research Article
                Ascomycote-containing lichens
                Lichenized Fungi
                Parmeliaceae
                Biogeography
                Identification Key
                Molecular Systematics
                Nomenclature
                Phylogeny
                Taxonomy
                Europe
                World

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