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      Increase in Prescription Opioid Use During Pregnancy Among Medicaid-Enrolled Women :

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          Abstract

          To report the prevalence of prescription opioid use and evaluate the trends in a large cohort of Medicaid-enrolled pregnant women.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Neonatal abstinence syndrome and associated health care expenditures: United States, 2000-2009.

          Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a postnatal drug withdrawal syndrome primarily caused by maternal opiate use. No national estimates are available for the incidence of maternal opiate use at the time of delivery or NAS. To determine the national incidence of NAS and antepartum maternal opiate use and to characterize trends in national health care expenditures associated with NAS between 2000 and 2009. A retrospective, serial, cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of newborns with NAS. The Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) was used to identify newborns with NAS by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) was used to identify mothers using diagnosis related groups for vaginal and cesarean deliveries. Clinical conditions were identified using ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. NAS and maternal opiate use were described as an annual frequency per 1000 hospital births. Missing hospital charges (<5% of cases) were estimated using multiple imputation. Trends in health care utilization outcomes over time were evaluated using variance-weighted regression. All hospital charges were adjusted for inflation to 2009 US dollars. Incidence of NAS and maternal opiate use, and related hospital charges. The separate years (2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009) of national discharge data included 2920 to 9674 unweighted discharges with NAS and 987 to 4563 unweighted discharges for mothers diagnosed with antepartum opiate use, within data sets including 784,191 to 1.1 million discharges for children (KID) and 816,554 to 879,910 discharges for all ages of delivering mothers (NIS). Between 2000 and 2009, the incidence of NAS among newborns increased from 1.20 (95% CI, 1.04-1.37) to 3.39 (95% CI, 3.12-3.67) per 1000 hospital births per year (P for trend < .001). Antepartum maternal opiate use also increased from 1.19 (95% CI, 1.01-1.35) to 5.63 (95% CI, 4.40-6.71) per 1000 hospital births per year (P for trend < .001). In 2009, newborns with NAS were more likely than all other hospital births to have low birthweight (19.1%; SE, 0.5%; vs 7.0%; SE, 0.2%), have respiratory complications (30.9%; SE, 0.7%; vs 8.9%; SE, 0.1%), and be covered by Medicaid (78.1%; SE, 0.8%; vs 45.5%; SE, 0.7%; all P < .001). Mean hospital charges for discharges with NAS increased from $39,400 (95% CI, $33,400-$45,400) in 2000 to $53,400 (95% CI, $49,000-$57,700) in 2009 (P for trend < .001). By 2009, 77.6% of charges for NAS were attributed to state Medicaid programs. Between 2000 and 2009, a substantial increase in the incidence of NAS and maternal opiate use in the United States was observed, as well as hospital charges related to NAS.
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            Major increases in opioid analgesic abuse in the United States: concerns and strategies.

            The problem of abuse of and addiction to opioid analgesics has emerged as a major issue for the United States in the past decade and has worsened over the past few years. The increases in abuse of these opioids appear to reflect, in part, changes in medication prescribing practices, changes in drug formulations as well as relatively easy access via the internet. Though the use of opioid analgesics for the treatment of acute pain appears to be generally benign, long-term administration of opioids has been associated with clinically meaningful rates of abuse or addiction. Important areas of research to help with the problem of opioid analgesic abuse include the identification of clinical practices that minimize the risks of addiction, the development of guidelines for early detection and management of addiction, the development of opioid analgesics that minimize the risks for abuse, and the development of safe and effective non-opioid analgesics. With high rates of abuse of opiate analgesics among teenagers in the United States, a particularly urgent priority is the investigation of best practices for treating pain in adolescents as well as the development of prevention strategies to reduce diversion and abuse.
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              Trends in use of opioids for non-cancer pain conditions 2000-2005 in commercial and Medicaid insurance plans: the TROUP study.

              Opioids are widely prescribed for non-cancer pain conditions (NCPC), but there have been no large observational studies in actual clinical practice assessing patterns of opioid use over extended periods of time. The TROUP (Trends and Risks of Opioid Use for Pain) study reports on trends in opioid therapy for NCPC in two disparate populations, one national and commercially insured population (HealthCore plan data) and one state-based and publicly-insured (Arkansas Medicaid) population over a six year period (2000-2005). We track enrollees with the four most common NCPC conditions: arthritis/joint pain, back pain, neck pain, headaches, as well as HIV/AIDS. Rates of NCPC diagnosis and opioid use increased linearly during this period in both groups, with the Medicaid group starting at higher rates and the HealthCore group increasing more rapidly. The proportion of enrollees receiving NCPC diagnoses increased (HealthCore 33%, Medicaid 9%), as did the proportion of enrollees with NCPC diagnoses who received opioids (HealthCore 58%, Medicaid 29%). Cumulative yearly opioid dose (in mg. morphine equivalents) received by NCPC patients treated with opioids increased (HealthCore 38%, Medicaid 37%) due to increases in number of days supplied rather than dose per day supplied. Use of short-acting Drug Enforcement Administration Schedule II opioids increased most rapidly, both in proportion of NCPC patients treated (HealthCore 54%, Medicaid 38%) and in cumulative yearly dose (HealthCore 95%, Medicaid 191%). These trends have occurred without any significant change in the underlying population prevalence of NCPC or new evidence of the efficacy of long-term opioid therapy and thus likely represent a broad-based shift in opioid treatment philosophy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Obstetrics & Gynecology
                Obstetrics & Gynecology
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0029-7844
                2014
                May 2014
                : 123
                : 5
                : 997-1002
                Article
                10.1097/AOG.0000000000000208
                24785852
                © 2014

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