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      Critical evaluation of ramucirumab in the treatment of advanced gastric and gastroesophageal cancers

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          Abstract

          Gastric (GC) and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancers are two global health problems with a relatively high mortality, particularly in the advanced stage. Inhibition of angiogenesis is now contemplated as a classic treatment preference for myriad tumor types encompassing renal cell carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer, colorectal cancer, glioblastoma, and ovarian cancer, among others. Bevacizumab and ramucirumab have been widely investigated in GC and GEJ cancer, with some controversy about their therapeutic role. Ramucirumab is a monoclonal antibody for vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, with demonstrated activity both as a monotherapy and as a part of combination strategy in the management of advanced GC/GEJ cancer. In this review article, we present a critical evaluation of the preclinical and clinical data underlying the use of this drug in this indication. Moreover, we provide a spotlight on the future perspectives in systemic therapy for advanced GC/GEJ cancer.

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          Most cited references 47

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          Capecitabine and oxaliplatin for advanced esophagogastric cancer.

           ,  Sheela Rao,  P. J. Oates (2008)
          We evaluated capecitabine (an oral fluoropyrimidine) and oxaliplatin (a platinum compound) as alternatives to infused fluorouracil and cisplatin, respectively, for untreated advanced esophagogastric cancer. In a two-by-two design, we randomly assigned 1002 patients to receive triplet therapy with epirubicin and cisplatin plus either fluorouracil (ECF) or capecitabine (ECX) or triplet therapy with epirubicin and oxaliplatin plus either fluorouracil (EOF) or capecitabine (EOX). The primary end point was noninferiority in overall survival for the triplet therapies containing capecitabine as compared with fluorouracil and for those containing oxaliplatin as compared with cisplatin. For the capecitabine-fluorouracil comparison, the hazard ratio for death in the capecitabine group was 0.86 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.99); for the oxaliplatin-cisplatin comparison, the hazard ratio for the oxaliplatin group was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.80 to 1.10). The upper limit of the confidence intervals for both hazard ratios excluded the predefined noninferiority margin of 1.23. Median survival times in the ECF, ECX, EOF, and EOX groups were 9.9 months, 9.9 months, 9.3 months, and 11.2 months, respectively; survival rates at 1 year were 37.7%, 40.8%, 40.4%, and 46.8%, respectively. In the secondary analysis, overall survival was longer with EOX than with ECF, with a hazard ratio for death of 0.80 in the EOX group (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.97; P=0.02). Progression-free survival and response rates did not differ significantly among the regimens. Toxic effects of capecitabine and fluorouracil were similar. As compared with cisplatin, oxaliplatin was associated with lower incidences of grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, alopecia, renal toxicity, and thromboembolism but with slightly higher incidences of grade 3 or 4 diarrhea and neuropathy. Capecitabine and oxaliplatin are as effective as fluorouracil and cisplatin, respectively, in patients with previously untreated esophagogastric cancer. (Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN51678883 [controlled-trials.com].). Copyright 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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            7th edition of the AJCC cancer staging manual: stomach.

             M. Washington (2010)
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              Five-year outcomes of a randomized phase III trial comparing adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 versus surgery alone in stage II or III gastric cancer.

              The first planned interim analysis (median follow-up, 3 years) of the Adjuvant Chemotherapy Trial of S-1 for Gastric Cancer confirmed that the oral fluoropyrimidine derivative S-1 significantly improved overall survival, the primary end point. The results were therefore opened at the recommendation of an independent data and safety monitoring committee. We report 5-year follow-up data on patients enrolled onto the ACTS-GC study. Patients with histologically confirmed stage II or III gastric cancer who underwent gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy were randomly assigned to receive S-1 after surgery or surgery only. S-1 (80 to 120 mg per day) was given for 4 weeks, followed by 2 weeks of rest. This 6-week cycle was repeated for 1 year. The primary end point was overall survival, and the secondary end points were relapse-free survival and safety. The overall survival rate at 5 years was 71.7% in the S-1 group and 61.1% in the surgery-only group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.669; 95% CI, 0.540 to 0.828). The relapse-free survival rate at 5 years was 65.4% in the S-1 group and 53.1% in the surgery-only group (HR, 0.653; 95% CI, 0.537 to 0.793). Subgroup analyses according to principal demographic factors such as sex, age, disease stage, and histologic type showed no interaction between treatment and any characteristic. On the basis of 5-year follow-up data, postoperative adjuvant therapy with S-1 was confirmed to improve overall survival and relapse-free survival in patients with stage II or III gastric cancer who had undergone D2 gastrectomy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2015
                28 July 2015
                : 11
                : 1123-1132
                Affiliations
                Clinical Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Omar Abdel-Rahman, Clinical Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Lotfy Elsayed Street, Cairo 11665, Egypt, Fax +20 3302 8656, Email omar.abdelrhman@ 123456med.asu.edu.eg
                Article
                tcrm-11-1123
                10.2147/TCRM.S71045
                4524527
                © 2015 ElHalawani and Abdel-Rahman. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Medicine

                gastroesophageal cancer, gastric cancer, ramucirumab

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