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      B chromosome in Plantago lagopus Linnaeus, 1753 shows preferential transmission and accumulation through unusual processes

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      Comparative Cytogenetics

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Most cited references 43

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          Cloning and characterization of ribosomal RNA genes from wheat and barley.

          Wheat and barley DNA enriched for ribosomal RNA genes was isolated from actinomycin D-CsCl gradients and used to clone the ribosomal repeating units in the plasmid pAC184. All five chimeric plasmids isolated which contained wheat rDNA and eleven of the thirteen which had barley rDNA were stable and included full length ribosomal repeating units. Physical maps of all length variants cloned have been constructed using the restriction endonucleases Eco Rl, Bam Hl, Bgl II, Hind III and Sal I. Length variation in the repeat units was attributed to differences in the spacer regions. Comparison of Hae III and Hpa II digestion of cereal rDNAs and the cloned repeats suggests that most methylated cytosines in natural rDNA are in -CpG-. Incomplete methylation occurs at specific Bam Hl sites in barley DNA. Detectable quantities of ribosomal spacer sequences are not present at any genomic locations other than those of the ribosomal RNA gene repeats.
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            Fast and sensitive silver staining of DNA in polyacrylamide gels

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              B-chromosome evolution.

              B chromosomes are extra chromosomes to the standard complement that occur in many organisms. They can originate in a number of ways including derivation from autosomes and sex chromosomes in intra- and interspecies crosses. Their subsequent molecular evolution resembles that of univalent sex chromosomes, which involves gene silencing, heterochromatinization and the accumulation of repetitive DNA and transposons. B-chromosome frequencies in populations result from a balance between their transmission rates and their effects on host fitness. Their long-term evolution is considered to be the outcome of selection on the host genome to eliminate B chromosomes or suppress their effects and on the B chromosome's ability to escape through the generation of new variants. Because B chromosomes interact with the standard chromosomes, they can play an important role in genome evolution and may be useful for studying molecular evolutionary processes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Comparative Cytogenetics
                CCG
                Pensoft Publishers
                1993-078X
                1993-0771
                May 22 2017
                May 22 2017
                : 11
                : 2
                : 375-392
                Article
                10.3897/compcytogen.v11i2.11779
                © 2017

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