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      Heavy metals analysis, phytochemical, phytotoxic and anthelmintic investigations of crude methanolic extract, subsequent fractions and crude saponins from Polygonum hydropiper L

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          Abstract

          Background

          Polygonum hydropiper L decoctions are traditionally used in the treatment of various ailments including inflammation, dyspepsia, diarrhea, menorrhagia, hemorrhoids, helminthiasis and CNS disorders. Present study was undertaken to investigate P. hydropiper L. for heavy metals content, phytoconstituents, Phytotoxic and anthelmintic activities to explore its toxicological and pharmacological potentials and rationalize its ethnomedicinal uses.

          Methods

          Plant crude powder, methanolic extract, fractions and soil samples were analyzed for heavy metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts was carried out for the existence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, anthraquinones, saponins, terpenoids, sterols and tannins. Radish seeds phytotoxicity assay was used to study phytotoxic action of plant extracts. Pheretima posthuma and Ascaridia galli were used to study anthelmintic potential of the plant using albendazole and levamisole HCl as standard drugs.

          Results

          Plant crude powder, methanolic extract (Ph.Cr), its subsequent fractions; n-hexane (Ph.Hex), chloroform (Ph.Chf), ethyl acetate (Ph.EtAc), n-Butanol (Ph.Bt), aqueous (Ph.Aq), saponins (Ph.Sp) and soil samples were found to contain copper (Cu), iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in different concentrations. In crude powder of the plant, heavy metals concentrations were within WHO specified limits, whereas different fractions and soil samples exhibited high metals content. Ph.Cr was tested positive for the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, triterpenoids and anthraquinone glycosides. Among different fractions Ph.EtAc, Ph.Sp, Ph.Chf and Ph.Bt were most effective causing 89.32, 89.25, 86.68 and 85.32% inhibition of seeds in phytotoxicity assay, with IC 50 values of 50, 60, 35 and 100 μg/ml respectively. In anthelmintic study, Ph.Sp, Ph.Chf, Ph.EtAc and Ph.Cr were most effective against P. posthuma at 10 mg/ml concentration with an average death time of 50, 64.67, 68.67 and 71 minutes respectively. Ph.EtAc, Ph.Chf and Ph.Aq were most effective against A. galli with average death time of 7, 9 and 10 min respectively at 1 mg/ml concentration.

          Conclusions

          Our findings indicate that P. hydropiper contains different heavy metals and secondary metabolites. Different fractions exhibited phytotoxic and anthelmintic activites comparable to control drugs, thus provide pharmacological basis for ethnomedicinal uses of this plant.

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          Most cited references55

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          Unresolved issues in anthelmintic pharmacology for helminthiases of humans.

          Helminth infections are an important constraint on the health and development of poor children and adults. Anthelmintic treatment programmes provide a safe and effective response, and increasing numbers of people are benefitting from these public health initiatives. Despite decades of clinical experience with anthelmintics for the treatment of human infections, relatively little is known about their clinical pharmacology. All of the drugs were developed initially in response to the considerable market for veterinary anthelmintics in high- and middle-income countries. In contrast, the greatest burden caused by these infections in humans is in resource-poor settings and as a result there has been insufficient commercial incentive to support studies on how these drugs work in humans, and how they should best be used in control programmes. The advent of mass drug administration programmes for the control of schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis and soil-transmitted helminthiases in humans increases the urgency to better understand and better monitor drug resistance, and to broaden the currently very narrow range of available anthelmintics. This provides fresh impetus for developing a comprehensive research platform designed to improve our understanding of these important drugs, in order to bring the scientific knowledge base supporting their use to a standard equivalent to that of drugs commonly used in developed countries. Furthermore, a better understanding of their clinical pharmacology will enable improved therapy and could contribute to the discovery of new products. Copyright 2009 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            An Ethnobotanical study of Medicinal Plants in high mountainous region of Chail valley (District Swat- Pakistan)

            Background This paper represents the first ethnobotanical study in Chail valley of district Swat-Pakistan and provides significant information on medicinal plants use among the tribal people of the area. The aim of this study was to document the medicinal uses of local plants and to develop an ethnobotanical inventory of the species diversity. Methods In present study, semi-structured interviews with 142 inhabitants (age range between 31–75 years) were conducted. Ethnobotanical data was analyzed using relative frequency of citation (RFC) to determine the well-known and most useful species in the area. Results Current research work reports total of 50 plant species belonging to 48 genera of 35 families from Chail valley. Origanum vulgare, Geranium wallichianum and Skimmia laureola have the highest values of relative frequency of citation (RFC) and are widely known by the inhabitants of the valley. The majority of the documented plants were herbs (58%) followed by shrubs (28%), trees (12%) and then climbers (2%). The part of the plant most frequently used was the leaves (33%) followed by roots (17%), fruits (14%), whole plant (12%), rhizomes (9%), stems (6%), barks (5%) and seeds (4%). Decoction was the most common preparation method use in herbal recipes. The most frequently treated diseases in the valley were urinary disorders, skin infections, digestive disorders, asthma, jaundice, angina, chronic dysentery and diarrhea. Conclusion This study contributes an ethnobotanical inventory of medicinal plants with their frequency of citations together with the part used, disease treated and methods of application among the tribal communities of Chail valley. The present survey has documented from this valley considerable indigenous knowledge about the local medicinal plants for treating number of common diseases that is ready to be further investigated for biological, pharmacological and toxicological screening. This study also provides some socio-economic aspects which are associated to the local tribal communities.
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              Ethnopharmacological application of medicinal plants to cure skin diseases and in folk cosmetics among the tribal communities of North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan.

              The present investigation is an attempt to find out ethnopharmacological application of medicinal plants to cure skin diseases and in folk cosmetics. We interviewed respondents in 30 remote sites of North-West Frontier Province by a structured interview form in the local language and respondents were queried for the type of herbal cure known to him. A total of 66 plant species belonging to 45 families have been recorded. Seventy-five medications for 15 skin diseases and cosmetics were documented. The mode of application was topical as well as oral administration. Water, milk, ghee, oil, eggs, sulphur and butter are used during administration of herbal remedies. About 15 plant species are known for their use to cure multiple skin diseases. Among these Berberis lyceum, Bergenia ciliata, Melia azedarach, Otostegia limbata, Phyla nodiflora, Prunus persica and Zingiber officinale constitutes major plants. The herbal cosmetics products range from face freshness, removal of ugly spots, hair care, and colouring of palm, feet, gums, and teeth. Most of the reported species are wild and rare; this demands an urgent attention to conserve such vital resources so as to optimize their use in the primary health care system. Since most of the skin diseases are caused by bacteria, viruses and fungi in this context, phytochemical screening for active constituents, biological activities and clinical studies is of global importance. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                ayazuop@gmail.com
                lecturer2005@yahoo.com
                Fsubhan2000@yahoo.com
                farhataziz80@hotmail.com
                sadiquom@yahoo.com
                sajad4u2000@yahoo.com
                imranbjr.khan@gmail.com
                zul_kamal2002@yahoo.com
                hussain77pk2003@yahoo.com
                majidpharma08@yahoo.com
                Journal
                BMC Complement Altern Med
                BMC Complement Altern Med
                BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
                BioMed Central (London )
                1472-6882
                3 December 2014
                2014
                : 14
                : 1
                : 465
                Affiliations
                [ ]Department of Pharmacy, University of Malakand, Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa, 18000, KPK Pakistan
                [ ]Department of Pharmacy, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan
                [ ]Department of Pharmacy, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Sheringal (Dir Upper), Kohat, KPK, Pakistan
                [ ]Department of Pharmacy, Kohat University of Science and Technology (KUST) Kohat, Kohat, Pakistan
                Article
                2039
                10.1186/1472-6882-14-465
                4289404
                25472835
                632761ce-f1bf-4b10-8df0-a2515159c426
                © Ayaz et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014

                This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                History
                : 11 June 2014
                : 20 November 2014
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2014

                Complementary & Alternative medicine
                polygonum hydropiper,phytotoxic,anthelmintic,heavy metals and saponins

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