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      ‘Medusa-head ataxia’: the expanding spectrum of Purkinje cell antibodies in autoimmune cerebellar ataxia. Part 1: Anti-mGluR1, anti-Homer-3, anti-Sj/ITPR1 and anti-CARP VIII

      ,

      Journal of Neuroinflammation

      BioMed Central

      Autoimmune cerebellar ataxia, Cerebellitis, Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, Autoantibodies, Purkinje cells, Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) antibodies, Homer-3 antibodies, Anti-Sj, Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor 1 (ITPR1, I3PR) antibodies, Carbonic anhydrase-related protein VIII (CARP VIII) antibodies, Protein kinase gamma (PKCγ) antibodies, Anti-Ca, Rho GTPase-activating protein 26 (ARHGAP26, GRAF) antibodies, Glutamate receptor delta2 (GluRδ2) antibodies, Anti-Yo, Cerebellar degeneration-related protein 2 (CDR2) antibodies, Cerebellar degeneration-related protein 2-like (CDR2L) antibodies, Purkinje cell antibody 2 (PCA-2), Anti-Tr, Delta notch-like epidermal growth factor-related receptor (DNER) antibodies, Anti-Nb, Anti-AP3B2, Neuronal adaptin-like protein (beta-NAP) antibodies, Voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) antibodies

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          Abstract

          Serological testing for anti-neural autoantibodies is important in patients presenting with idiopathic cerebellar ataxia, since these autoantibodies may indicate cancer, determine treatment and predict prognosis. While some of them target nuclear antigens present in all or most CNS neurons (e.g. anti-Hu, anti-Ri), others more specifically target antigens present in the cytoplasm or plasma membrane of Purkinje cells (PC). In this series of articles, we provide a detailed review of the clinical and paraclinical features, oncological, therapeutic and prognostic implications, pathogenetic relevance, and differential laboratory diagnosis of the 12 most common PC autoantibodies (often referred to as ‘Medusa-head antibodies’ due to their characteristic somatodendritic binding pattern when tested by immunohistochemistry). To assist immunologists and neurologists in diagnosing these disorders, typical high-resolution immunohistochemical images of all 12 reactivities are presented, diagnostic pitfalls discussed and all currently available assays reviewed. Of note, most of these antibodies target antigens involved in the mGluR1/calcium pathway essential for PC function and survival. Many of the antigens also play a role in spinocerebellar ataxia. Part 1 focuses on anti-metabotropic glutamate receptor 1-, anti-Homer protein homolog 3-, anti-Sj/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor- and anti-carbonic anhydrase-related protein VIII-associated autoimmune cerebellar ataxia (ACA); part 2 covers anti-protein kinase C gamma-, anti-glutamate receptor delta-2-, anti-Ca/RhoGTPase-activating protein 26- and anti-voltage-gated calcium channel-associated ACA; and part 3 reviews the current knowledge on anti-Tr/delta notch-like epidermal growth factor-related receptor-, anti-Nb/AP3B2-, anti-Yo/cerebellar degeneration-related protein 2- and Purkinje cell antibody 2-associated ACA, discusses differential diagnostic aspects and provides a summary and outlook.

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          Most cited references 209

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          Proteomics. Tissue-based map of the human proteome.

          Resolving the molecular details of proteome variation in the different tissues and organs of the human body will greatly increase our knowledge of human biology and disease. Here, we present a map of the human tissue proteome based on an integrated omics approach that involves quantitative transcriptomics at the tissue and organ level, combined with tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry, to achieve spatial localization of proteins down to the single-cell level. Our tissue-based analysis detected more than 90% of the putative protein-coding genes. We used this approach to explore the human secretome, the membrane proteome, the druggable proteome, the cancer proteome, and the metabolic functions in 32 different tissues and organs. All the data are integrated in an interactive Web-based database that allows exploration of individual proteins, as well as navigation of global expression patterns, in all major tissues and organs in the human body. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
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            Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis: case series and analysis of the effects of antibodies.

            A severe form of encephalitis associated with antibodies against NR1-NR2 heteromers of the NMDA receptor was recently identified. We aimed to analyse the clinical and immunological features of patients with the disorder and examine the effects of antibodies against NMDA receptors in neuronal cultures. We describe the clinical characteristics of 100 patients with encephalitis and NR1-NR2 antibodies. HEK293 cells ectopically expressing single or assembled NR1-NR2 subunits were used to determine the epitope targeted by the antibodies. Antibody titres were measured with ELISA. The effect of antibodies on neuronal cultures was determined by quantitative analysis of NMDA-receptor clusters. Median age of patients was 23 years (range 5-76 years); 91 were women. All patients presented with psychiatric symptoms or memory problems; 76 had seizures, 88 unresponsiveness (decreased consciousness), 86 dyskinesias, 69 autonomic instability, and 66 hypoventilation. 58 (59%) of 98 patients for whom results of oncological assessments were available had tumours, most commonly ovarian teratoma. Patients who received early tumour treatment (usually with immunotherapy) had better outcome (p=0.004) and fewer neurological relapses (p=0.009) than the rest of the patients. 75 patients recovered or had mild deficits and 25 had severe deficits or died. Improvement was associated with a decrease of serum antibody titres. The main epitope targeted by the antibodies is in the extracellular N-terminal domain of the NR1 subunit. Patients' antibodies decreased the numbers of cell-surface NMDA receptors and NMDA-receptor clusters in postsynaptic dendrites, an effect that could be reversed by antibody removal. A well-defined set of clinical characteristics are associated with anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis. The pathogenesis of the disorder seems to be mediated by antibodies.
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              Regulation of cell death: the calcium-apoptosis link.

              To live or to die? This crucial question eloquently reflects the dual role of Ca2+ in living organisms--survival factor or ruthless killer. It has long been known that Ca2+ signals govern a host of vital cell functions and so are necessary for cell survival. However, more recently it has become clear that cellular Ca2+ overload, or perturbation of intracellular Ca2+ compartmentalization, can cause cytotoxicity and trigger either apoptotic or necrotic cell death.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                Molecular Neuroimmunology Group, Department of Neurology, University of Heidelberg, Otto Meyerhof Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 350, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany
                Contributors
                +49-6221-56-4747 , sven.jarius@med.uni-heidelberg.de , sjarius@med.uni-heidelberg.de
                brigitte.wildemann@med.uni-heidelberg.de
                Journal
                J Neuroinflammation
                J Neuroinflammation
                Journal of Neuroinflammation
                BioMed Central (London )
                1742-2094
                17 September 2015
                17 September 2015
                2015
                : 12
                26377085 4574226 356 10.1186/s12974-015-0356-y
                © Jarius and Wildemann. 2015

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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