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      Human Parafoveal Capillary Vascular Anatomy and Connectivity Revealed by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          To assess the connection among arterioles, venules, and capillaries in three retinal capillary plexuses using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA).

          Methods

          This was a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study including 20 eyes of 10 healthy subjects. En face and cross-sectional OCTA images were segmented to study the superficial (SCP), middle (MCP), and deep capillary plexuses (DCP). Using thin slabs and manual segmentation within the three plexuses, we examined the connections between the large-caliber superficial vessels within a 3 × 3 mm 2 OCTA scan (arterioles and venules) and the smaller capillaries in each plexus.

          Results

          Twenty eyes of 10 healthy subjects (5 females; average age of 30.8 ± 6.3 years) were included in the analysis. We identified vascular interconnections linking the superficial arterioles and venules with capillaries in each plexus (SCP, MCP, and DCP). We found capillaries in the DCP crossed the horizontal raphe.

          Conclusions

          Our findings show that each of the three capillary plexuses in the parafovea has its own feeding arteriolar supply and draining venules, supporting a physiologic model in which each plexus controls its own oxygenated blood supply to match the metabolic needs of each distinct retinal neurovascular unit.

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          Most cited references 44

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          Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography

          Amplitude decorrelation measurement is sensitive to transverse flow and immune to phase noise in comparison to Doppler and other phase-based approaches. However, the high axial resolution of OCT makes it very sensitive to the pulsatile bulk motion noise in the axial direction. To overcome this limitation, we developed split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA) to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of flow detection. The full OCT spectrum was split into several narrower bands. Inter-B-scan decorrelation was computed using the spectral bands separately and then averaged. The SSADA algorithm was tested on in vivo images of the human macula and optic nerve head. It significantly improved both SNR for flow detection and connectivity of microvascular network when compared to other amplitude-decorrelation algorithms.
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            Depth-resolved imaging of capillary networks in retina and choroid using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography.

            We demonstrate the depth-resolved and detailed ocular perfusion maps within retina and choroid can be obtained from an ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography (OMAG). As opposed to the conventional OMAG, we apply the OMAG algorithm along the slow scanning axis to achieve the ultrahigh sensitive imaging to the slow flows within capillaries. We use an 840 nm system operating at an imaging rate of 400 frames/s that requires 3 s to complete one 3D scan of approximately 3 x 3 mm(2) area on retina. We show the superior imaging performance of OMAG to provide functional images of capillary level microcirculation at different land-marked depths within retina and choroid that correlate well with the standard retinal pathology.
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              IN VIVO CHARACTERIZATION OF RETINAL VASCULARIZATION MORPHOLOGY USING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY.

              To evaluate retinal vessel morphology using split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography in healthy eyes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci
                Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci
                iovs
                Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci
                IOVS
                Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
                The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology
                0146-0404
                1552-5783
                August 2018
                : 59
                : 10
                : 3858-3867
                Affiliations
                The Department of Ophthalmology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, United States
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Amani A. Fawzi, Department of Ophthalmology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 645 N. Michigan Avenue, Suite 440, Chicago, IL 60611, USA; afawzimd@ 123456gmail.com .
                Article
                iovs-59-08-56 IOVS-18-24710R1
                10.1167/iovs.18-24710
                6071478
                Copyright 2018 The Authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

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                Categories
                Retina

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