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      Natural products inhibitors of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE): a review between 1980 - 2000 Translated title: Produtos naturais inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina (ECA): uma revisão entre 1980 - 2000

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          Abstract

          Inhibition of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) is a modern therapeutic target in the treatment of hypertension. Within the enzyme cascade of the renin-angiotensin system, ACE removes histidyl-leucine from angiotensin I to form the physiologically active octapeptide angiotensin II, one of the most potent known vasoconstrictors. Therefore, a rationale for treating hypertension would be to administer drugs or natural compounds which selectively inhibit ACE. The present work constitutes a review of the literature of plants and chemically defined molecules from natural sources with in vitro anti-hypertensive potential based on the inhibition of ACE. The review refers to 321 plants, the parts utilized, type of extract and whether they are active or not. It includes also the names of 158 compounds isolated from higher plants, marine sponges and algae, fungi and snake venom. Some aspects of recent research with natural products directed to produce anti-hypertensive drugs are discussed. In this review, 148 references were cited.

          Translated abstract

          A inibição da Enzima Conversora da Angiotensina (ECA) é um alvo terapêutico moderno e eficaz no tratamento da hipertensão arterial. Na cascata enzimática que envolve o sistema renina-angiotensina, a ECA promove a remoção dos aminoácidos histidil-leucina da angiotensina I para formar o octapeptídio angiotensina II, a qual é fisiologicamente ativa em diversos sistemas, e considerado como um dos mais potentes vasoconstrictores endógenos conhecido. Portanto, uma racionalidade no tratamento da hipertensão seria administrar drogas ou compostos de origem natural que inibam seletivamente a ECA. O presente estudo constitui uma revisão da literatura sobre plantas e moléculas de origem natural com potencial anti-hipertensivo, baseado na inibição in vitro da ECA. A revisão referencia 321 plantas, partes usadas, tipo de extrato e se é ativo ou não. Inclui ainda o nome de 158 compostos isolados de plantas superiores, esponjas e algas marinhas, fungos e venenos de cobra. Alguns aspectos de pesquisa recente com produtos naturais direcionados à produção de drogas anti-hipertensivas também são discutidos. Nesta revisão 148 referências foram consultadas.

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          Most cited references 159

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          C-reactive protein and other emerging blood biomarkers to optimize risk stratification of vulnerable patients.

          Several emerging plasma biomarkers may ultimately prove useful in risk stratification and prognosis of cardiovascular disease. The clinical utility of these biomarkers will depend on their ability to provide a reflection of the underlying atherosclerotic burden or activity; the ability to provide reliable, accurate, and cost-effective information; and the ability to predict future events. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) fulfills many, if not all, of these criteria, and blood levels of hs-CRP are now commonly used in clinical practice to improve vascular risk prediction in primary and secondary prevention across all levels of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), all levels of the Framingham Risk Score, and all levels of metabolic syndrome. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein may also have clinical relevance as an adjunct to LDL-C for both the targeting and monitoring of statin therapy. Accumulating evidence suggests that several other selected emerging biomarkers may also potentially prove useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of cardiovascular disease. Specifically, data are accumulating on the potential clinical utility of lipoprotein-associated lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, myeloperoxidase, oxidized LDL, lipoprotein (a), isoprostanes, and small, dense LDL. This review focuses on hs-CRP and these emerging plasma biomarkers, and their potential diagnostic and prognostic utility in cardiovascular disease. Plasma biomarkers that reflect the clinical potential of atherothrombotic disease may allow more precise risk stratification and prognostication in high-risk populations, and perhaps earlier diagnosis and intervention in patients at risk for or with occult cardiovascular disease.
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            The scope of coronary heart disease in patients with chronic kidney disease.

            Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects approximately 13% of the U.S. population and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular complications. Once renal replacement therapy became available, it became apparent that the mode of death of patients with advanced CKD was more likely than not related to cardiovascular compromise. Further observation revealed that such compromise was related to myocardial disease (related to hypertension, stiff vessels, coronary heart disease, or uremic toxins). Early on, the excess of cardiovascular events was attributed to accelerated atherosclerosis, inadequate control of blood pressure, lipids, or inflammatory cytokines, or perhaps poor glycemia control. In more recent times, outcome research has given us further information that relates even lesser degrees of renal compromise to an excess of cardiovascular events in the general population and in those with already present atherosclerotic disease. As renal function deteriorates, certain physiologic changes occur (perhaps due to hemodynamic, inflammatory, or metabolic changes) that decrease oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood by virtue of anemia, make blood vessels stiffer by altering collagen or through medial calcinosis, raise the blood pressure, increase shearing stresses, or alter the constituents of atherosclerotic plaque or the balance of thrombogenesis and thrombolysis. At further levels of renal dysfunction, tangible metabolic perturbations are recognized as requiring specific therapy to reduce complications (such as for anemia and hyperparathyroidism), although outcome research to support some of our current guidelines is sorely lacking. Understanding the process by which renal dysfunction alters the prognosis of cardiac disease might lead to further methods of treatment. This review will outline the relationship of CKD to coronary heart disease with respect to the current understanding of the traditional and nontraditional risk factors, the role of various imaging modalities, and the impact of coronary revascularization on outcome.
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              The 1988 report of the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure.

              (1988)
              The National High Blood Pressure Education Program has released three Joint National Committee reports and a task force report on the detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. Like its predecessors, the 1988 Joint National Committee report was developed using the consensus process; it is based on the latest scientific research and reflects the state of the art regarding hypertension management. This report updates findings of previous reports in several respects: it broadens the step-care approach to provide more flexibility for clinicians; encourages greater patient involvement in the treatment program; emphasizes a consideration of the quality of life in the management of patients; and addresses the cost of care. It also provides more emphasis on control of other risk factors for cardiovascular disease; includes a discussion of the new cholesterol guidelines; recommends a reduction in alcohol consumption; and discusses the use of calcium and fish oil supplementation. This document expands earlier reports on special populations, including blacks and other racial and ethnic minority groups, young and elderly patients, pregnant patients, surgical candidates, and hypertensive patients with cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease, left ventricular hypertrophy, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, renal disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or bronchial asthma, gout, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia. The report also updates previous drug tables to include new drugs, revised recommended doses of some drugs, and drug interactions. Consideration of step-down therapy after blood pressure has been controlled is suggested. This report is intended as a guide for practicing physicians and other health professionals in their care of hypertensive patients and as a reference for those participating in the many community high blood pressure control programs throughout the country.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                rbfar
                Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia
                Rev. bras. farmacogn.
                Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia (Curitiba )
                1981-528X
                September 2006
                : 16
                : 3
                : 421-446
                Article
                S0102-695X2006000300021
                10.1590/S0102-695X2006000300021
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                PHARMACOLOGY & PHARMACY

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