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      Battle of the sexes: Gender stereotype confirmation and reactance in negotiations.

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      Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

      American Psychological Association (APA)

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          Abstract

          The authors examined how gender stereotypes affect negotiation performance. Men outperformed women when the negotiation was perceived as diagnostic of ability (Experiment 1) or the negotiation was linked to gender-specific traits (Experiment 2), suggesting the threat of negative stereotype confirmation hurt women's performance relative to men. The authors hypothesized that men and women confirm gender stereotypes when they are activated implicitly, but when stereotypes are explicitly activated, people exhibit stereotype reactance, or the tendency to behave in a manner inconsistent with a stereotype. Experiment 3 confirmed this hypothesis. In Experiment 4, the authors examined the cognitive processes involved in stereotype reactance and the conditions under which cooperative behaviors between men and women can be promoted at the bargaining table (by activating a shared identity that transcends gender).

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          Most cited references 42

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          Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans.

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            Implicit social cognition: Attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes.

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              Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations

               H Tajfel (1982)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
                Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
                American Psychological Association (APA)
                1939-1315
                0022-3514
                2001
                2001
                : 80
                : 6
                : 942-958
                Article
                10.1037/0022-3514.80.6.942
                11414376
                © 2001

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