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      Dynamics of Metabolite Induction in Fungal Co-cultures by Metabolomics at Both Volatile and Non-volatile Levels

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          Fungal co-cultivation has emerged as a promising way for activating cryptic biosynthetic pathways and discovering novel antimicrobial metabolites. For the success of such studies, a key element remains the development of standardized co-cultivation methods compatible with high-throughput analytical procedures. To efficiently highlight induction processes, it is crucial to acquire a holistic view of intermicrobial communication at the molecular level. To tackle this issue, a strategy was developed based on the miniaturization of fungal cultures that allows for a concomitant survey of induction phenomena in volatile and non-volatile metabolomes. Fungi were directly grown in vials, and each sample was profiled by head space solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS), while the corresponding solid culture medium was analyzed by liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) after solvent extraction. This strategy was implemented for the screening of volatile and non-volatile metabolite inductions in an ecologically relevant fungal co-culture of Eutypa lata (Pers.) Tul. & C. Tul. (Diatrypaceae) and Botryosphaeria obtusa (Schwein.) Shoemaker (Botryosphaeriaceae), two wood-decaying fungi interacting in the context of esca disease of grapevine. For a comprehensive evaluation of the results, a multivariate data analysis combining Analysis of Variance and Partial Least Squares approaches, namely AMOPLS, was used to explore the complex LC-HRMS and GC-MS datasets and highlight dynamically induced compounds. A time-series study was carried out over 9 days, showing characteristic metabolite induction patterns in both volatile and non-volatile dimensions. Relevant links between the dynamics of expression of specific metabolite production were observed. In addition, the antifungal activity of 2-nonanone, a metabolite incrementally produced over time in the volatile fraction, was assessed against Eutypa lata and Botryosphaeria obtusa in an adapted bioassay set for volatile compounds. This compound has shown antifungal activity on both fungi and was found to be co-expressed with a known antifungal compound, O-methylmellein, induced in solid media. This strategy could help elucidate microbial inter- and intra-species cross-talk at various levels. Moreover, it supports the study of concerted defense/communication mechanisms for efficiently identifying original antimicrobials.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Natural Products as Sources of New Drugs from 1981 to 2014.

          This contribution is a completely updated and expanded version of the four prior analogous reviews that were published in this journal in 1997, 2003, 2007, and 2012. In the case of all approved therapeutic agents, the time frame has been extended to cover the 34 years from January 1, 1981, to December 31, 2014, for all diseases worldwide, and from 1950 (earliest so far identified) to December 2014 for all approved antitumor drugs worldwide. As mentioned in the 2012 review, we have continued to utilize our secondary subdivision of a "natural product mimic", or "NM", to join the original primary divisions and the designation "natural product botanical", or "NB", to cover those botanical "defined mixtures" now recognized as drug entities by the U.S. FDA (and similar organizations). From the data presented in this review, the utilization of natural products and/or their novel structures, in order to discover and develop the final drug entity, is still alive and well. For example, in the area of cancer, over the time frame from around the 1940s to the end of 2014, of the 175 small molecules approved, 131, or 75%, are other than "S" (synthetic), with 85, or 49%, actually being either natural products or directly derived therefrom. In other areas, the influence of natural product structures is quite marked, with, as expected from prior information, the anti-infective area being dependent on natural products and their structures. We wish to draw the attention of readers to the rapidly evolving recognition that a significant number of natural product drugs/leads are actually produced by microbes and/or microbial interactions with the "host from whence it was isolated", and therefore it is considered that this area of natural product research should be expanded significantly.
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            MZmine 2: Modular framework for processing, visualizing, and analyzing mass spectrometry-based molecular profile data

            Background Mass spectrometry (MS) coupled with online separation methods is commonly applied for differential and quantitative profiling of biological samples in metabolomic as well as proteomic research. Such approaches are used for systems biology, functional genomics, and biomarker discovery, among others. An ongoing challenge of these molecular profiling approaches, however, is the development of better data processing methods. Here we introduce a new generation of a popular open-source data processing toolbox, MZmine 2. Results A key concept of the MZmine 2 software design is the strict separation of core functionality and data processing modules, with emphasis on easy usability and support for high-resolution spectra processing. Data processing modules take advantage of embedded visualization tools, allowing for immediate previews of parameter settings. Newly introduced functionality includes the identification of peaks using online databases, MSn data support, improved isotope pattern support, scatter plot visualization, and a new method for peak list alignment based on the random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithm. The performance of the RANSAC alignment was evaluated using synthetic datasets as well as actual experimental data, and the results were compared to those obtained using other alignment algorithms. Conclusions MZmine 2 is freely available under a GNU GPL license and can be obtained from the project website at: The current version of MZmine 2 is suitable for processing large batches of data and has been applied to both targeted and non-targeted metabolomic analyses.
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              The evolving role of natural products in drug discovery.

              Natural products and their derivatives have historically been invaluable as a source of therapeutic agents. However, in the past decade, research into natural products in the pharmaceutical industry has declined, owing to issues such as the lack of compatibility of traditional natural-product extract libraries with high-throughput screening. However, as discussed in this review, recent technological advances that help to address these issues, coupled with unrealized expectations from current lead-generation strategies, have led to a renewed interest in natural products in drug discovery.

                Author and article information

                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                05 February 2018
                : 9
                1School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (EPGL), University of Geneva, University of Lausanne, Centre Médical Universitaire (CMU) , Geneva, Switzerland
                2Department of Drug Science and Technology, University of Turin , Turin, Italy
                3Plant Protection, Mycology and Biotechnology , Agroscope, Nyon, Switzerland
                Author notes

                Edited by: Jack Wong, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

                Reviewed by: Gyöngyvér Mara, Sapientia Hungarian University of Transylvania, Romania; Cristina Silva Pereira, Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica (ITQB-NOVA), Portugal

                *Correspondence: Jean-Luc Wolfender, jean-luc.wolfender@ Katia Gindro, katia.gindro@

                These authors have contributed equally to this work as first authors.

                This article was submitted to Antimicrobials, Resistance and Chemotherapy, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

                Copyright © 2018 Azzollini, Boggia, Boccard, Sgorbini, Lecoultre, Allard, Rubiolo, Rudaz, Gindro, Bicchi and Wolfender.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Figures: 7, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 41, Pages: 12, Words: 0
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