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      Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin Levels in Comparison with Glomerular Filtration Rate for Evaluation of Renal Function in Patients with Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease

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          Abstract

          Background

          Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a promising biomarker of acute kidney injury. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that NGAL is also a marker of kidney disease and severity in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We studied the utility of urinary NGAL in more accurately predicting renal function in patients with diabetic CKD.

          Methods

          We studied possible relationships between urinary NGAL, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and proteinuria in diabetic CKD patients and in healthy populations.

          Results

          Urinary NGAL levels were significantly higher in CKD patients than in healthy controls (96.0 [2.7 to 975.2] ng/mL vs. 18.8 [1.3 to 81.9] ng/mL, P=0.02), and the GFR was lower among CKD patients (49.3 [13.1 to 78.3] mL/min/1.73 m 2 vs. 85.6 [72 to 106.7] mL/min/1.73 m 2, P<0.0001). The urinary NGAL level showed a significant inverse correlation with GFR ( r=-0.5634, P<0.0001). The correlation analyses between urinary protein level and urinary NGAL levels and GFR were as follows: urine protein and urinary NGAL ( r=0.3009, P=0.0256), urine protein and GFR ( r=-0.6245, P<0.0001), urine microalbumin and urinary NGAL ( r=0.1794, P=0.2275), and urine microalbumin and GFR ( r=-0.5190, P=0.0002).

          Conclusion

          From these results, we concluded that urinary NGAL is a reliable marker of renal function in diabetic CKD patients. However, urinary NGAL did not provide more accurate information regarding renal function than GFR.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Recommendations for improving serum creatinine measurement: a report from the Laboratory Working Group of the National Kidney Disease Education Program.

           G. Myers (2006)
          Reliable serum creatinine measurements in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation are critical to ongoing global public health efforts to increase the diagnosis and treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We present an overview of the commonly used methods for the determination of serum creatinine, method limitations, and method performance in conjunction with the development of analytical performance criteria. Available resources for standardization of serum creatinine measurement are discussed, and recommendations for measurement improvement are given. The National Kidney Disease Education Program (NKDEP) Laboratory Working Group reviewed problems related to serum creatinine measurement for estimating GFR and prepared recommendations to standardize and improve creatinine measurement. The NKDEP Laboratory Working Group, in collaboration with international professional organizations, has developed a plan that enables standardization and improved accuracy (trueness) of serum creatinine measurements in clinical laboratories worldwide that includes the use of the estimating equation for GFR based on serum creatinine concentration that was developed from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study. The current variability in serum creatinine measurements renders all estimating equations for GFR, including the MDRD Study equation, less accurate in the normal and slightly increased range of serum creatinine concentrations [<133 micromol/L (1.5 mg/dL)], which is the relevant range for detecting CKD [<60 mL.min(-1).(1.73 m2)(-1)]. Many automated routine methods for serum creatinine measurement meet or exceed the required precision; therefore, reduction of analytical bias in creatinine assays is needed. Standardization of calibration does not correct for analytical interferences (nonspecificity bias). The bias and nonspecificity problems associated with some of the routine methods must be addressed.
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            Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and progression of chronic kidney disease.

            Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has recently assumed epidemic proportion, becoming a troubling emerging cause of morbidity, especially if it progresses to terminal stage (ESRD). The authors aimed to evaluate whether neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a novel specific biomarker of acute kidney injury, could predict the progression of CKD. Serum and urinary NGAL levels, together with a series of putative progression factors, were evaluated in a cohort of 96 patients (mean age: 57 +/- 16 years) affected by nonterminal CKD (eGFR > or =15 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) of various etiology. Progression of CKD, assessed as doubling of baseline serum creatinine and/or onset of ESRD, was evaluated during follow-up. At baseline, both serum and urinary NGAL were inversely, independently, and closely related to eGFR. After a median follow-up of 18.5 mo (range 1.01 to 20), 31 patients (32%) reached the composite endpoint. At baseline, these patients were significantly older and showed increased serum creatinine, calcium-phosphate product, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, daily proteinuria, and NGAL levels, whereas eGFR values were significantly lower. Univariate followed by multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis showed that urinary NGAL and sNGAL predicted CKD progression independently of other potential confounders, including eGFR and age. In patients with CKD, NGAL closely reflects the entity of renal impairment and represents a strong and independent risk marker for progression of CKD.
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              Plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin predicts acute kidney injury, morbidity and mortality after pediatric cardiac surgery: a prospective uncontrolled cohort study

              Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The lack of early biomarkers has impaired our ability to intervene in a timely manner. We previously showed in a small cohort of patients that plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), measured using a research enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, is an early predictive biomarker of AKI after CPB. In this study we tested whether a point-of-care NGAL device can predict AKI after CPB in a larger cohort. Methods First, in a cross-sectional pilot study including 40 plasma samples (NGAL range 60 to 730 ng/ml) and 12 calibration standards (NGAL range 0 to 1,925 ng/ml), NGAL measurements by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by Triage® NGAL Device (Biosite Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) were highly correlated (r = 0.94). Second, in a subsequent prospective uncontrolled cohort study, 120 children undergoing CPB were enrolled. Plasma was collected at baseline and at frequent intervals for 24 hours after CPB, and analyzed for NGAL using the Triage® NGAL device. The primary outcome was AKI, which was defined as a 50% or greater increase in serum creatinine. Results AKI developed in 45 patients (37%), but the diagnosis using serum creatinine was delayed by 2 to 3 days after CPB. In contrast, mean plasma NGAL levels increased threefold within 2 hours of CPB and remained significantly elevated for the duration of the study. By multivariate analysis, plasma NGAL at 2 hours after CPB was the most powerful independent predictor of AKI (β = 0.004, P < 0.0001). For the 2-hour plasma NGAL measurement, the area under the curve was 0.96, sensitivity was 0.84, and specificity was 0.94 for prediction of AKI using a cut-off value of 150 ng/ml. The 2 hour postoperative plasma NGAL levels strongly correlated with change in creatinine (r = 0.46, P < 0.001), duration of AKI (r = 0.57, P < 0.001), and length of hospital stay (r = 0.44, P < 0.001). The 12-hour plasma NGAL strongly correlated with mortality (r = 0.48, P = 0.004) and all measures of morbidity mentioned above. Conclusion Accurate measurements of plasma NGAL are obtained using the point-of-care Triage® NGAL device. Plasma NGAL is an early predictive biomarker of AKI, morbidity, and mortality after pediatric CPB.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diabetes Metab J
                Diabetes Metab J
                DMJ
                Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
                Korean Diabetes Association
                2233-6079
                2233-6087
                August 2012
                20 August 2012
                : 36
                : 4
                : 307-313
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Laboratory Medicine, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea.
                [2 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Jin-Yeong Han. Department of Laboratory Medicine, Dong-A University College of Medicine, 32 Daesingongwon-ro, Seo-gu, Busan 602-714, Korea. jyhan@ 123456dau.ac.kr
                Article
                10.4093/dmj.2012.36.4.307
                3428420
                22950063
                Copyright © 2012 Korean Diabetes Association

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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