Objective This study focused on investigating the effects of microRNA551b-5p (miR-551b-5p) on severe acute pancreatitis. Methods Initially, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is employed to determine the expression of miR-551b-5p in differentiated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Further, the effects of aberrantly expressed miR-551b-5p in HUVECs Transwell assay. The expressions of proteins associated with severe acute pancreatitis capillary leakage syndrome are determined by Western blot, FITC-phalloidin, and immunofluorescence stainings. Finally, the correlative factor and the target genes of miR-551b-5p, as well as their contributions, are assessed. Results We observed that overexpression of miR-551b-5p distinctly promoted the expression of EGFR, AKT3, and AQP5, while it suppressed the expression of JAM3, AQP1, and occludin. Functionally, the cytoskeleton of the miR-551b-5p overexpression was relatively loose with apparent vacuoles, and overexpression of miR-551b-5p increased the permeability of HUVECs. Conclusion miR-551b-5p overexpression promoted changes in vascular endothelial permeability via upregulation of the EGFR/AKT3 pathway and downregulation of occludin and JAM3.