07 December 2019
high temperature solid-state chemistry, coordination polymers, metal-organic materials (MOMs), second-sphere coordination, single crystal X-ray diffraction, ab initio powder X-ray diffraction, single-crystal-to-single-crystal, crystal-to-polycrystalline transformation, crystal-to-amorphous-to-polycrystalline transformation
Thermal treatment is important in the solid-state chemistry of metal organic materials (MOMs) because it can create unexpected new structures with unique properties and applications that otherwise in the solution state are very difficult or impossible to achieve. Additionally, high-temperature solid-state reactivity provide insights to better understand chemical processes taking place in the solid-state. This review article describes relevant thermally induced solid-state reactions in metal organic materials, which include metal organic frameworks (MOFs)/coordination polymers (CPs), and second coordination sphere adducts (SSCs). High temperature solid-state reactivity can occur in a single-crystal-to-single crystal manner (SCSC) usually for cases where there is small atomic motion, allowing full structural characterization by single crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD) analysis. However, for the cases in which the structural transformations are severe, often the crystallinity of the metal-organic material is damaged, and this happens in a crystal-to-polycrystalline manner. For such cases, in the absence of suitable single crystals, structural characterization has to be carried out using ab initio powder X-ray diffraction analysis or pair distribution function (PDF) analysis when the product is amorphous. In this article, relevant thermally induced SCSC reactions and crystal-to-polycrystalline reactions in MOMs that involve significant structural transformations as a result of the molecular/atomic motion are described. Thermal reactivity focusing on cleavage and formation of coordination and covalent bonds, crystalline-to-amorphous-to-crystalline transformations, host–guest behavior and dehydrochlorination reactions in MOFs and SSCs will be discussed.