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      Thermal Reactivity in Metal Organic Materials (MOMs): From Single-Crystal-to-Single-Crystal Reactions and Beyond

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          Abstract

          Thermal treatment is important in the solid-state chemistry of metal organic materials (MOMs) because it can create unexpected new structures with unique properties and applications that otherwise in the solution state are very difficult or impossible to achieve. Additionally, high-temperature solid-state reactivity provide insights to better understand chemical processes taking place in the solid-state. This review article describes relevant thermally induced solid-state reactions in metal organic materials, which include metal organic frameworks (MOFs)/coordination polymers (CPs), and second coordination sphere adducts (SSCs). High temperature solid-state reactivity can occur in a single-crystal-to-single crystal manner (SCSC) usually for cases where there is small atomic motion, allowing full structural characterization by single crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD) analysis. However, for the cases in which the structural transformations are severe, often the crystallinity of the metal-organic material is damaged, and this happens in a crystal-to-polycrystalline manner. For such cases, in the absence of suitable single crystals, structural characterization has to be carried out using ab initio powder X-ray diffraction analysis or pair distribution function (PDF) analysis when the product is amorphous. In this article, relevant thermally induced SCSC reactions and crystal-to-polycrystalline reactions in MOMs that involve significant structural transformations as a result of the molecular/atomic motion are described. Thermal reactivity focusing on cleavage and formation of coordination and covalent bonds, crystalline-to-amorphous-to-crystalline transformations, host–guest behavior and dehydrochlorination reactions in MOFs and SSCs will be discussed.

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          Most cited references 75

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          Functional Porous Coordination Polymers

          The chemistry of the coordination polymers has in recent years advanced extensively, affording various architectures, which are constructed from a variety of molecular building blocks with different interactions between them. The next challenge is the chemical and physical functionalization of these architectures, through the porous properties of the frameworks. This review concentrates on three aspects of coordination polymers: 1). the use of crystal engineering to construct porous frameworks from connectors and linkers ("nanospace engineering"), 2). characterizing and cataloging the porous properties by functions for storage, exchange, separation, etc., and 3). the next generation of porous functions based on dynamic crystal transformations caused by guest molecules or physical stimuli. Our aim is to present the state of the art chemistry and physics of and in the micropores of porous coordination polymers.
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            Modular chemistry: secondary building units as a basis for the design of highly porous and robust metal-organic carboxylate frameworks.

            Secondary building units (SBUs) are molecular complexes and cluster entities in which ligand coordination modes and metal coordination environments can be utilized in the transformation of these fragments into extended porous networks using polytopic linkers (1,4-benzenedicarboxylate, 1,3,5,7-adamantanetetracarboxylate, etc.). Consideration of the geometric and chemical attributes of the SBUs and linkers leads to prediction of the framework topology, and in turn to the design and synthesis of a new class of porous materials with robust structures and high porosity.
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              Mechanochemistry: opportunities for new and cleaner synthesis.

              The aim of this critical review is to provide a broad but digestible overview of mechanochemical synthesis, i.e. reactions conducted by grinding solid reactants together with no or minimal solvent. Although mechanochemistry has historically been a sideline approach to synthesis it may soon move into the mainstream because it is increasingly apparent that it can be practical, and even advantageous, and because of the opportunities it provides for developing more sustainable methods. Concentrating on recent advances, this article covers industrial aspects, inorganic materials, organic synthesis, cocrystallisation, pharmaceutical aspects, metal complexes (including metal-organic frameworks), supramolecular aspects and characterization methods. The historical development, mechanistic aspects, limitations and opportunities are also discussed (314 references). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Materials (Basel)
                Materials (Basel)
                materials
                Materials
                MDPI
                1996-1944
                07 December 2019
                December 2019
                : 12
                : 24
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Dipartimento di Chimica Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica. “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Via L. Mancinelli 7, 20131 Milano, Italy; javier.marti@ 123456polimi.it ; Tel.: +39-02-2399-3047
                [2 ]Center for Nano Science and Technology@Polimi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Pascoli 70/3, 20133 Milano, Italy
                Article
                materials-12-04088
                10.3390/ma12244088
                6947525
                31817836
                © 2019 by the author.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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