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# Long-term management of gastroesophageal reflux disease with pantoprazole

Dove Medical Press

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### Abstract

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic, relapsing disease that can progress to major complications. Affected patients have poorer health-related quality of life than the general population. As GERD requires continued therapy to prevent relapse and complications, most patients with erosive esophagitis require long-term acid suppressive treatment. Thus GERD results in a significant cost burden and poor health-related quality of life. The effective treatment of GERD provides symptom resolution and high rates of remission in erosive esophagitis, lowers the incidence of GERD complications, improves health-related quality of life, and reduces the cost of this disease. Proton pump inhibitors are accepted as the most effective initial and maintenance treatment for GERD. Oral pantoprazole is a safe, well tolerated and effective initial and maintenance treatment for patients with nonerosive GERD or erosive esophagitis. Oral pantoprazole has greater efficacy than histamine H 2-receptor antagonists and generally similar efficacy to other proton pump inhibitors for the initial and maintenance treatment of GERD. In addition, oral pantoprazole has been shown to improve the quality of life of patients with GERD and is associated with high levels of patient satisfaction with therapy. GERD appears to be more common and more severe in the elderly, and pantoprazole has shown to be an effective treatment for this at-risk population.

### Most cited references142

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### The burden of selected digestive diseases in the United States.

(2002)
Gastrointestinal (GI) and liver diseases inflict a heavy economic burden. Although the burden is considerable, current and accessible information on the prevalence, morbidity, and cost is sparse. This study was undertaken to estimate the economic burden of GI and liver disease in the United States for use by policy makers, health care providers, and the public. Data were extracted from a number of publicly available and proprietary national databases to determine the prevalence, direct costs, and indirect costs for 17 selected GI and liver diseases. Indirect cost calculations were purposefully very conservative. These costs were compared with National Institutes of Health (NIH) research expenditures for selected GI and liver diseases. The most prevalent diseases were non-food-borne gastroenteritis (135 million cases/year), food-borne illness (76 million), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD; 19 million), and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS; 15 million). The disease with the highest annual direct costs in the United States was GERD ($9.3 billion), followed by gallbladder disease ($5.8 billion), colorectal cancer ($4.8 billion), and peptic ulcer disease ($3.1 billion). The estimated direct costs for these 17 diseases in 1998 dollars were $36.0 billion, with estimated indirect costs of$22.8 billion. The estimated direct costs for all digestive diseases were $85.5 billion. Total NIH research expenditures were$676 million in 2000. GI and liver diseases exact heavy economic and social costs in the United States. Understanding the prevalence and costs of these diseases is important to help set priorities to reduce the burden of illness.
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### Polypharmacy and prescribing quality in older people.

(2006)
To evaluate the relationship between inappropriate prescribing, medication underuse, and the total number of medications used by patients. Cross-sectional study. Veterans Affairs Medical Center. One hundred ninety-six outpatients aged 65 and older who were taking five or more medications. Inappropriate prescribing was assessed using a combination of the Beers drugs-to-avoid criteria (2003 update) and subscales of the Medication Appropriateness Index that assess whether a drug is ineffective, not indicated, or unnecessary duplication of therapy. Underuse was assessed using the Assessment of Underutilization of Medications instrument. All vitamins and minerals, topical and herbal medications, and medications taken as needed were excluded from the analyses. Mean age was 74.6, and patients used a mean+/-standard deviation of 8.1+/-2.5 medications (range 5-17). Use of one or more inappropriate medications was documented in 128 patients (65%), including 73 (37%) taking a medication in violation of the Beers drugs-to-avoid criteria and 112 (57%) taking a medication that was ineffective, not indicated, or duplicative. Medication underuse was observed in 125 patients (64%). Together, inappropriate use and underuse were simultaneously present in 82 patients (42%), whereas 25 (13%) had neither inappropriate use nor underuse. When assessed by the total number of medications taken, the frequency of inappropriate medication use rose sharply from a mean of 0.4 inappropriate medications in patients taking five to six drugs, to 1.1 inappropriate medications in patients taking seven to nine drugs, to 1.9 inappropriate medications in patients taking 10 or more drugs (P<.001). In contrast, the frequency of underuse averaged 1.0 underused medications per patient and did not vary with the total number of medications taken (P=.26). Overall, patients using fewer than eight medications were more likely to be missing a potentially beneficial drug than to be taking a medication considered inappropriate. Inappropriate medication use and underuse were common in older people taking five or more medications, with both simultaneously present in more than 40% of patients. Inappropriate medication use is most frequent in patients taking many medications, but underuse is also common and merits attention regardless of the total number of medications taken.
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### Demographic variations in the rising incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma in white males.

(2001)
The rise in adenocarcinoma (AC) of the esophagus has been reported in several papers. However, the results are only comparable to a limited extent, because they are based on differing periods and different computational methods. The purpose of the current investigation was to collect the available data and to analyze them in a unified manner. The authors requested data on the incidence of AC of the esophagus for each year since 1960 from 43 tumor registries in North America, Europe, and Australia. The data from 22 centers were used. The trend was calculated by fitting the data to an exponential growth model. The incidence of AC of the esophagus in white males is rising in most countries. The highest values of the estimated incidence rate in the year 2000 were found in Great Britain (5.0- 8.7 cases per 100,000 population) and in Australia (4.8 cases per 100,000 population) followed by The Netherlands (4.4 cases per 100,000 population), the United States (3.7 cases per 100,000 population), and Denmark (2.8 cases per 100,000 population). Low rates (< 1.0 cases per 100,000 population) were found in Eastern Europe. The largest changes in incidence were reported in the Southern European countries, with an estimate of the average increase over six registries of 30% per year; in Australia, with an average increase of 23.5% per year; and in the United States, with an average increase of 20.6% per year. The rates of increase ranged from 8.7% to 17.5% on average in Northern Europe, Central Europe, and the United Kingdom. In Eastern Europe, at most, there was a minor rise in incidence. In the Western industrialized nations, the analyzed data show that the incidence of AC of the esophagus has been rising rapidly in the last 20 years. The only exceptions to date are the countries of Eastern Europe. Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.
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### Author and article information

###### Journal
Ther Clin Risk Manag
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Dove Medical Press
1176-6336
1178-203X
June 2007
June 2007
: 3
: 2
: 231-243
###### Affiliations
Allgemeines Krankenhaus Hagen, University of Witten/Herdecke Germany
###### Author notes
Correspondence: Theo Scholten Allgemeines Krankenhaus Hagen, Gruenstr. 35, 58095 Hagen, Germany Tel +49 2331 201 2246 Fax +49 2331 201 2309 Email scholten@ 123456akh-hagen.de
###### Article
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