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      Differential Effects of Reward Drive and Rash Impulsivity on the Consumption of a Range of Hedonic Stimuli

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          Background and aims

          Impulsivity has consistently been associated with over-consumption and addiction. Recent research has reconceptualized impulsivity as a two-dimensional construct ( Dawe, Gullo, & Loxton, 2004). This study explores the relationship of the two components of impulsivity, reward drive (RD) and rash impulsivity (RI), on a broad group of 23 hedonic consumption behaviors (e.g., gambling, substance use, eating, and media use). We tentatively grouped the behaviors into three descriptive classes: entertainment, foodstuffs, and illicit activities and substances.


          RD and RI positively predicted elevated levels of consumption in a community sample ( N=5,391; 51% female), for the vast majority of the behaviors considered. However, the effect sizes for RD and RI varied significantly depending on the behavior; a pattern that appeared to be at least partially attributable to the class of consumption. Results support the view that RD is related more strongly to the consumption of products that provide social engagement or a sense of increased status; whereas RI better reflects an approach toward illicit or restricted products that are intensely rewarding with clear negative consequences.

          Discussion and conclusion

          Results support the utility of the two-factor model of impulsivity in explaining individual differences in patterns of hedonic consumption in the general population. We discuss findings in terms of strengthening current conceptualizations of RI and RD as having distinct implications with respect to health-related behaviors.

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          Most cited references 67

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            A systematic method for clinical description and classification of personality variants. A proposal.

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            A systematic method for clinical description and classification of both normal and abnormal personality variants is proposed based on a general biosocial theory of personality. Three dimensions of personality are defined in terms of the basic stimulus-response characteristics of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence. The possible underlying genetic and neuroanatomical bases of observed variation in these dimensions are reviewed and considered in relation to adaptive responses to environmental challenge. The functional interaction of these dimensions leads to integrated patterns of differential response to novelty, punishment, and reward. The possible tridimensional combinations of extreme (high or low) variants on these basic stimulus-response characteristics correspond closely to traditional descriptions of personality disorders. This reconciles dimensional and categorical approaches to personality description. It also implies that the underlying structure of normal adaptive traits is the same as that of maladaptive personality traits, except for schizotypal and paranoid disorders.
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              The stability of behavior: I. On predicting most of the people much of the time.


                Author and article information

                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                J Behav Addict
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                01 July 2016
                June 2016
                : 5
                : 2
                : 192-203
                [1 ] School of Human, Health, and Social Sciences, Central Queensland University, Bundaberg , Australia
                [2 ] School of Applied Psychology, Griffith University, Mt Gravatt, Brisbane , Australia
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Belinda C. Goodwin; Central Queensland University, University Drive, Branyan, QLD 4670, Australia; Phone: +61 7 4150 7054; E-mail: b.goodwin@
                © 2016 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 50, Pages: 12
                Funding sources: Funding for this study was provided by Health Collaboration Research Network (CRN). The funder played no role in the design, collection, analysis or interpretation of the data, writing the manuscript, or the decision to submit the paper for publication.
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