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      Pericarditis due to Anaerobic Bacteria

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          Abstract

          This review describes the microbiology, diagnosis and management of pericarditis due to anaerobic bacteria. The predominant anaerobes recovered from patients with pericarditis were: gram-negative bacilli (mostly of the Bacteroides fragilis group), anaerobic streptococci, Clostridium spp., Fusobacterium spp., and Bifidobacterium spp. Anaerobic bacteria can be isolated in pericarditis resulting from the following mechanisms: (1) spread from a contiguous focus of infection, either de novo or after surgery or trauma (pleuropulmonary, esophageal fistula or perforation, and odontogenic); (2) spread from a focus of infection within the heart, most commonly from endocarditis; (3) hematogenous infection, and (4) direct inoculation as a result of a penetrating injury or cardiothoracic surgery. No differences were found in the clinical diagnostic features between cases of pericarditis due to anaerobic bacteria and those due to aerobic and facultative bacteria. Anaerobic gram-negative bacilli have increased their resistance to penicillins and other antimicrobials in the last decade. Complete identification and testing for antimicrobial susceptibility and lactamase production are therefore essential for the management of infections caused by these bacteria. Treatment of pericarditis involving anaerobic bacteria includes the use of antibiotic therapy effective against these organisms.

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          Microbiology of acute purulent pericarditis. A 12-year experience in a military hospital.

          To study the aerobic and anaerobic micro-biological and clinical characteristics in 15 cases of acute pericarditis treated over a 12-year period. Retrospective review of microbiological and clinical data. Military hospital in Bethesda, Md. Aerobic or facultative bacteria alone were present in 7 specimens (47%), anaerobic bacteria alone in 6 specimens (40%), and mixed aerobic-anaerobic flora in 2 specimens (13%). In total, there were 21 isolates: 10 aerobic or facultative bacteria and 11 anaerobic bacteria, an average of 1.4 per specimen. Anaerobic bacteria predominated in patients with pericarditis who also had mediastinitis that followed esophageal perforation and in patients whose pericarditis was associated with orofacial and dental infections. The predominant aerobic bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (3 isolates) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (2 isolates), and the predominant anaerobic bacteria were Prevotella species (4 isolates), Peptostreptococcus species (3 isolates), and Propionibacterium acnes (2 isolates). The findings in our study highlight the potential importance of anaerobic bacteria in acute pericarditis.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            CRD
            Cardiology
            10.1159/issn.0008-6312
            Cardiology
            S. Karger AG
            0008-6312
            1421-9751
            2002
            April 2002
            25 April 2002
            : 97
            : 2
            : 55-58
            Affiliations
            Department of Pediatrics, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, D.C., USA
            Article
            57672 Cardiology 2002;97:55–58
            10.1159/000057672
            11978949
            © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

            Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

            Page count
            References: 14, Pages: 4
            Categories
            Review

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