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      Doxorubicin-induced renal inflammation in rats: Protective role of Plantago major

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          The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effect of Plantago major ( P. major) extract against doxorubicin (DXR)-induced renal inflammation in rats.

          Materials and Methods:

          80 male albino rats were randomly divided into 8 groups as follows: control, DXR, Ext (extract) 600, Ext1200, dexamethasone+DXR, vitamin E+DXR, Ext600+DXR , and Ext1200+DXR. Duration of the study was 35 days and DXR was intravenously injected on the 7 th day of the experiment. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression levels were assessed in the left kidney. Serum creatinine concentration and osmolarity were determined on the 1 st, 14 th, 21 st, 28 th and 35 th days of the experiment.


          DXR caused a significant increase in renal expression of MCP-1 and TNF-α production compared to control animals. Administration of dexamethasone, vitamin E and P. major extract significantly improved the expression of these inflammatory mediators compared to DXR group. Compared to day 1 in DXR group, serum osmolarity showed a significant increase on days 21, 28 and 35. Also, on these days, serum osmolarity in DXR group was significantly higher than that on the same days in control group. In Vit E+DXR and Ext 1200+DXR groups, there was no significant changes in serum osmolarity among different days of the study. However, in these groups, serum osmolarity on days 21, 28 and 35 showed a significant decrease compared to the same days in DXR group.


          Present results suggest that hydroethanolic extract of P. major protected renal tissue against DXR–induced renal inflammation.

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          Most cited references 21

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          The traditional uses, chemical constituents and biological activities of Plantago major L. A review

          Plantago major L. leaves have been used as a wound healing remedy for centuries in almost all parts of the world and in the treatment of a number of diseases apart from wound healing. These include diseases related to the skin, respiratory organs, digestive organs, reproduction, the circulation, against cancer, for pain relief and against infections. P. major contains biologically active compounds such as polysaccharides, lipids, caffeic acid derivatives, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides and terpenoids. Alkaloids and some organic acids have also been detected. A range of biological activities has been found from plant extracts including wound healing activity, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, weak antibiotic, immuno modulating and antiulcerogenic activity. Some of these effects may attribute to the use of this plant in folk medicine.
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            Vitamin D receptor attenuates renal fibrosis by suppressing the renin-angiotensin system.

            Analogs of vitamin D attenuate renal injury in several models of kidney disease, but the mechanism underlying this renoprotective effect is unknown. To address the role of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in renal fibrogenesis, we subjected VDR-null mice to unilateral ureteral obstruction for 7 days. Compared with wild-type mice, VDR-null mice developed more severe renal damage in the obstructed kidney, with marked tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Significant induction of extracellular matrix proteins (fibronectin and collagen I), profibrogenic and proinflammatory factors (TGF-beta, connective tissue growth factor, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1), and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition accompanied this histologic damage. Because VDR ablation activates the renin-angiotensin system and leads to accumulation of angiotensin II (AngII) in the kidney, we assessed whether elevated AngII in the VDR-null kidney promotes injury. Treatment with the angiotensin type 1 antagonist losartan eliminated the difference in obstruction-induced interstitial fibrosis between wild-type and VDR-null mice, suggesting that AngII contributes to the enhanced renal fibrosis observed in obstructed VDR-null kidneys. Taken together, these results suggest that the VDR attenuates obstructive renal injury at least in part by suppressing the renin-angiotensin system.
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              The nephrotic syndrome.

               E. Ritz,  S Orth (1998)

                Author and article information

                Avicenna J Phytomed
                Avicenna J Phytomed
                Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
                Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Mashhad, Iran )
                Mar-Apr 2018
                : 8
                : 2
                : 179-187
                [1 ] Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
                [2 ] Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
                [3 ] Division of Neurocognitive Sciences, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
                [4 ] Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
                [# ] Co-first author
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding Author:Tel: +985138828565.,Fax: +985138828564khajavirada@mums.ac.ir

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Original Research Article


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