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      Application Value of CTA in the Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage of Different Origins

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          Abstract

          Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is difficult to detect because of its circulation through subarachnoid space, which leads to a high rate of missed diagnosis. Based on the above background, the purpose of this study is to study the application value of brain CT angiography (CTA) in computer-aided diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage with a wide range of brain digital subtraction angiography as a gold standard. This paper collected images and related medical records of 111 patients with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage receiving brain CTA and DSA examinations from February 2015 to November 2019 in the neurology department of our hospital. In contrast to the number, position, length, width, and neck width of the causative aneurysm detected by DSA, we evaluated the diagnostic results of CTA and evaluated whether there was statistical difference between the two detectives of intracranial aneurysms. The results showed that the area under ROC curve of subtraction CTA and conventional CTA was 1.000 and 0.818, respectively, which indicated that the former had better display effect on internal carotid aneurysm (AUC > 0.9), while the latter had medium value (0.7 < AUC ≤ 0.9), and the difference was statistically significant ( z = 2.390, p=0.017).

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          Most cited references 26

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          Melatonin attenuated early brain injury induced by subarachnoid hemorrhage via regulating NLRP3 inflammasome and apoptosis signaling.

          Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating condition with high morbidity and mortality rates due to the lack of effective therapy. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation associated with the upregulation of apoptotic signaling pathway has been implicated in various inflammatory diseases including hemorrhagic insults. Melatonin is reported to possess substantial anti-inflammatory properties, which is beneficial for early brain injury (EBI) after SAH. However, the molecular mechanisms have not been clearly identified. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of melatonin against EBI induced by SAH and to elucidate the potential mechanisms. The adult mice were subjected to SAH. Melatonin or vehicle was injected intraperitoneally 2 hr after SAH. Melatonin was neuroprotective, as shown by increased survival rate, as well as elevated neurological score, greater survival of neurons, preserved brain glutathione levels, and reduced brain edema, malondialdehyde concentrations, apoptotic ratio, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. Melatonin also attenuated the expressions of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), cleaved caspase-1, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6); these changes were also associated with an increase in the anti-apoptotic factor (Bcl2) and reduction in the pro-apoptotic factor (Bim). In summary, our results demonstrate that melatonin treatment attenuates the EBI following SAH by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome-associated apoptosis.
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            Lipoxin A4 Reduces Inflammation Through Formyl Peptide Receptor 2/p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Rats.

            Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) has been reported to reduce inflammation in several neurological injury models. We studied the effects of LXA4 on neuroinflammation after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in a rat model.
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              Enhanced Therapeutic Potential of Nano-Curcumin Against Subarachnoid Hemorrhage-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption Through Inhibition of Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress.

              Curcumin and nano-curcumin both exhibit neuroprotective effects in early brain injury (EBI) after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, the mechanism that whether curcumin and its nanoparticles affect the blood-brain barrier (BBB) following SAH remains unclear. This study investigated the effect of curcumin and the poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-encapsulated curcumin nanoparticles (Cur-NPs) on BBB disruption and evaluated the possible mechanism underlying BBB dysfunction in EBI using the endovascular perforation rat SAH model. The results indicated that Cur-NPs showed enhanced therapeutic effects than that of curcumin in improving neurological function, reducing brain water content, and Evans blue dye extravasation after SAH. Mechanically, Cur-NPs attenuated BBB dysfunction after SAH by preventing the disruption of tight junction protein (ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5). Cur-NPs also up-regulated glutamate transporter-1 and attenuated glutamate concentration of cerebrospinal fluid following SAH. Moreover, inhibition of inflammatory response and microglia activation both contributed to Cur-NPs' protective effects. Additionally, Cur-NPs markedly suppressed SAH-mediated oxidative stress and eventually reversed SAH-induced cell apoptosis in rats. Our findings revealed that the strategy of using Cur-NPs could be a promising way in improving neurological function in EBI after experimental rat SAH.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                J Healthc Eng
                J Healthc Eng
                JHE
                Journal of Healthcare Engineering
                Hindawi
                2040-2295
                2040-2309
                2021
                15 January 2021
                : 2021
                Affiliations
                1Department of Forensic Pathology, College of Forensic Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049, China
                2Railway Police College, Zhengzhou, Henan 450053, China
                3Institute of Forensic Science, Ministry of Public Security, Beijing 100038, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Yang Gao

                Article
                10.1155/2021/6638610
                7822679
                33510889
                Copyright © 2021 Wei Li et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: National Key Research and Development Programs
                Award ID: 2018YFC0807203
                Funded by: College Key Scientific Research Projects of Henan Province
                Award ID: 20B340001
                Categories
                Research Article

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